Use of X-Ray CT to Measure Pore Volume Compressibility of Shaybah Carbonates
- Shameem Siddiqui (Saudi Aramco) | James J. Funk (Saudi Aramco) | Ashraf M. Al-Tahini (Saudi Aramco)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- February 2010
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 155 - 164
- 2010. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 5.6.2 Core Analysis, 4.3.4 Scale, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 1.2.2 Geomechanics, 5.6.5 Tracers, 5.3.1 Flow in Porous Media
- dual-energy CT, CT-scanning, pore volume compressibility, carbonate, compressibility
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 1,041 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The Lower Cretaceous Shu'aiba formation (Shaybah field) in southeastern Saudi Arabia is a heterogeneous carbonate formation with various facies because of diagenetic alteration of the original rock fabric. Preliminary laboratory rock-mechanics studies indicated that the Shu'aiba carbonates are mechanically weak, with the majority of the rocks tested yielding very low strength values (less than 3,000 psi) when compared to samples from other carbonate reservoirs (Salamy and Finkbeiner 2002). On the basis of laboratory-derived rock-strength data from triaxial tests, the formation appears to behave in a plastic manner that strengthens the wellbore. To understand the stress behavior of the Shaybah rocks better, a set of pore-volume-compressibility tests was conducted in which the changes taking place within the samples were observed and quantified using an X-ray computerized-tomography (CT) scanner. A new technique involving dual-energy CT scanning was used to obtain the pore volume compressibility values, which were compared against the conventional triaxial-cell-generated data and published results by Harari et al. (1995) on cores taken from the same reservoir. Although the magnitude of the pore volume compressibility was the same between different setups, visual data showed some interesting behavior of the Shaybah cores including movement of grains in an irreversible manner even for a relatively low imposed effective stress of 2,000 psi. Some of the advantages of the new CT-based analysis technique include the generation of multiple pore volume compressibility curves from the same plug (a band of data, each at a different slice location), the "visualization" of the changes, the possibility of using either hydrostatic or triaxial cells to make the test more case-specific, and the possibility of measuring permeability under different stress conditions before, during, and after the test.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||10|
Akin, S. and Kovscek, A.R. 2001. Use of Computerized Tomography in PetroleumEngineering Research. Annual Report, SUPRI TR 127, Stanford University,Stanford, California, 63-83 (August 2001).
Al-Awami, F., Hemanthkumar, K., Salamy, S., and Sadler, R. 2005. A Mega-Cell Simulation Model of theShaybah Field. Paper IPTC 10240 presented at the International PetroleumTechnology Conference, Doha, Qatar, 21-23 November. doi: 10.2523/10240-MS.
Amyx, J.M., Bass, D.M., and Whiting, R.L. 1960. Petroleum ReservoirEngineering Physical Properties. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Ballay, G. 2000. Multidimensional Petrophysical Analysis in the ReservoirDescription Division. Saudi Aramco Journal of Technology (Winter2000/2001): 15-25.
Dixon, J.R. Jr. 1988. Method for determining pore volume compressibility ofa porous material. US Patent No. 4,782,501.
Geertsma, J. 1957. The Effect of Fluid Pressure Decline on VolumetricChanges of Porous Rocks. Trans., AIME, 210: 331-340.
Harari, Z., Wang, S-T., and Saner, S. 1995. Pore Compressibility Study of ArabianCarbonate Reservoir Rocks. SPE Form Eval 10 (4):207-214. SPE-27625-PA. doi: 10.2118/27625-PA.
Hughes, G.W. 2001. Biofacies of the Shu'aiba Formation, Shaybah Field, SaudiArabia. Saudi Aramco Journal of Technology (Summer 2001): 1-19.
Hughes, G.W., Siddiqui, S., and Sadler, R.K. 2004. Computerized TomographyReveals Aptian Rudist Species and Taphonomy. Geologia Croatica 57 (1): 67-71.
Kantzas, A. 1990. Investigation of Physical Properties of Porous Rocks andFluid Flow Phenomena in Porous Media Using Computer Assisted Tomography. InSitu 14 (1): 77-132.
Karacan, C.O., Grader, A.S., and Halleck, P.M. 2001. 4-D Mapping of Porosity andInvestigation of Permeability Changes in Deforming Porous Medium. Paper SPE72379 presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Canton, Ohio, USA, 17-19October. doi: 10.2118/72379-MS.
Okasha, T.M. and Funk, J.J. 2002. Electrical and Petrophysical Properties ofShu'aiba Reservoir, Saudi Arabia. Paper SCA 2002-48 presented at the 2002 SCAInternational Symposium, Monterey, California, USA, 22-25 September.
Okasha, T.M., Al-Abbad, M.A., and Al-Shiwaish, A.A. 2006. Investigation ofthe Effect of Temperature and Pressure on Interfacial Tension and Wettabilityof Lower Cretaceous Arabian Carbonate Reservoir, Saudi Arabia. Presented at theGEO 2006 7th Middle East Geosciences Conference and Exhibition (GEO 2006),Manama, Bahrain, 27-29 March.
Okasha, T.M., Funk, J.J., and Al-Shiwaish, A.A. 2005. Evaluation of Residual Oil Saturationand Recovery Efficiency of Two Distinct Arabian Carbonate Reservoirs. PaperSPE 93376 presented at the SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference,Manama, Bahrain, 12-15 March. doi: 10.2118/93376-MS.
Okasha, T.M., Funk, J.J., and Balobaid, Y.S. 2000. Petrophysics of Shu'aibaReservoir, Shaybah Field. Paper SCA 2000-35 presented at the 2000 SCA AnnualTechnical Symposium, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 18-22 October.
Salamy, S.P. and Finkbeiner, T. 2002. A Poroelastic Analysis to Address theImpact of Depletion Rate on Wellbore Stability in Openhole HorizontalCompletions. Paper SPE 78562 presented at the Abu Dhabi InternationalPetroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 13-16 October. doi:10.2118/78562-MS.
Salamy, S.P., Faddagh, H.A., Ajmi, A.M., Lauten, W.T., and Mubarak, H.K.1999. Methodology Implemented inAssessing and Monitoring Hole Stability Concerns in Openhole HorizontalWellbores in Carbonate Reservoirs. Paper SPE 56508 presented at the SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 3-6 October. doi:10.2118/56508-MS.
Siddiqui, S. 2001. Application of Computerized Tomography in Core Analysisat Saudi Aramco. Saudi Aramco Journal of Technology (Winter 2000-2001):2-14.
Siddiqui, S. and Khamees, A.A. 2004. Dual-Energy CT-Scanning Applicationsin Rock Characterization. Paper SPE 90520 presented at the SPE AnnualConference and Exhibition, Houston, 26-29 September. doi: 10.2118/90520-MS.
Unalmiser, S. and Stewart, R.W. 1989. Boundary Effect on PorosityMeasurements and Its Resolution by Method and Mathematical Means. The LogAnalyst (March-April): 85-92.
van der Knaap, W. 1959. Nonlinear Behavior of Elastic Porous Media.Trans., AIME, 216: 179-187.
Vinegar, H.J. 1986. X-Ray CTand NMR Imaging of Rocks. J. Pet Tech 38 (3): 257-259.SPE-15277-PA. doi: 10.2118/15277-PA.
Vinegar, H.J., de Waal, J.A., and Wellington, S.L. 1991. CT Studies ofBrittle Failure in Castlegate Sandstone. International Journal of RockMechanics and Mining Sciences 28 (5): 441-448.
Wellington, S.L. and Vinegar, H.J. 1987. X-Ray Computerized Tomography.J. Pet Tech 39 (8): 885-898. SPE-16983-PA. doi:10.2118/16983-PA.
Withjack, E.M., Devier, C., and Michael, G. 2003. The Role of X-Ray Computed Tomographyin Core Analysis. Paper SPE 83467 presented at the SPE WesternRegional/AAPG Pacific Section Joint Meeting, Long Beach, California, USA, 19-24May. doi: 10.2118/83467-MS.
Zimmerman, R.W. 1991. Compressibility of Sandstones, No. 29.Amsterdam: Developments in Petroleum Science, Elsevier Science PublishersB.V.