Scale Squeeze Evaluation Through Improved Sample Preservation, Inhibitor Detection and Minimum Inhibitor Concentration Monitoring
- Kari Ramstad (StatoilHydro) | Hans Christian Rohde (M-I SWACO) | Trine Tydal (StatoilHydro) | Dorthe Christensen (StatoilHydro)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- November 2009
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 530 - 542
- 2009. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.10.1 Drill string components and drilling tools (tubulars, jars, subs, stabilisers, reamers, etc), 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 1.8 Formation Damage, 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 3 Production and Well Operations, 4.5 Offshore Facilities and Subsea Systems, 2.2.2 Perforating, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 3.3.1 Production Logging, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control
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- 539 since 2007
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In North Sea oil and gas fields, seawater injection is used for reservoir pressure support. Formation water and seawater mixing may lead to sulphate scaling in the near-wellbore area, tubing, and process systems. Scale-inhibitor squeeze treatments are applied to protect the producers and extend the field lifetime. Reducing cost and prolonging the squeeze lifetime is essential. In some StatoilHydro-operated fields, squeeze lifetime has been evaluated based on inhibitor-return concentration and cumulative-water treated. Field experience and laboratory studies have determined the criteria for resqueezing the wells.
One critical aspect of downhole-scale management is the laboratory determined minimum inhibitor concentration (MIC) of the squeeze inhibitor. If the MIC is lower than the concentration of inhibitor required to prevent scale at real conditions, the well may scale up. Field examples are given in which sulphate scale was observed downhole and in the tubing around the safety valve even if the inhibitor concentration was higher than the laboratory-determined MIC. MIC varies throughout the well lifetime according to variation in brine chemistry/operating conditions and should be re-evaluated frequently.
Polymer squeeze inhibitors are difficult to measure with sufficient accuracy at a low concentration. However, adequate preservation of the water samples may improve the detection. The volume of water produced before reaching MIC can be significantly increased with improved inhibitor-detection methods.
Laboratory studies have been performed addressing the sensitivity of inhibitor detection as a function of ion composition, inhibitor concentration, as well as a particles and preservation additive. Parallel samples have been taken offshore. MIC has been determined for a range of formation/seawater mixtures.
This paper describes laboratory analyses, sampling procedures, well monitoring, inhibitor-return detection, and field/well-lifetime MIC determination as methods to obtain a long but safe squeeze lifetime.
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