Stress-Corrosion Cracking as an Alternative Time-Dependent Shale-Stability Model
- Namsu Park (GeoMechanics International) | Jon E. Olson (The University of Texas at Austin) | Jon Holder (The University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- June 2010
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 168 - 176
- 2010. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.1.10 Reservoir Geomechanics, 1.11.2 Drilling Fluid Selection and Formulation (Chemistry, Properties), 5.8.6 Naturally Fractured Reservoir, 5.8.2 Shale Gas, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 6.5.3 Waste Management, 4.3.4 Scale, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 1.1.6 Hole Openers & Under-reamers, 1.2.2 Geomechanics, 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 5.1.4 Petrology, 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials
- Time-dependent failure, discrete element method, subcritical crack growth, stress corrosion, wellbore stability
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 883 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Wellbore stability in shale has been a crucial issue for drilling in all kinds of environments. The analysis of time-dependent wellbore stability in shales has largely concentrated on the influence of fluid chemistry and filtrate invasion into the formation to predict compressive failure using poroelasticity and continuum models. This paper presents another possible mechanism for time-dependent behavior--stress-corrosion cracking (subcritical crack growth). Using the discrete-element method (DEM) to simulate grain-scale processes, we apply the concept of time-dependent cracking to hole enlargement for vertical wellbores. We use a published example from the North Sea to verify the stress-corrosion model and demonstrate the application to wellbore stability in shale. Laboratory results on rocks indicate a wide range of susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking related to rock petrology and contact-fluid chemistry. Using laboratory calibrated rock properties, we run 2D, plane-strain simulations of vertical-wellbore stability in shale, where hole enlargement is tracked through time. As a result of stress-corrosion cracking, the numerical models show a time-dependent failure history, with an initial stable period of varying duration (influenced by mud weight, rock properties, and in-situ stress), followed by a brief period of combined shear and tensile failure, and ending with stabilization at an enlarged, elliptically shaped geometry. Time to failure increases with increasing mud weight. Enlarged-hole shape changes from elliptical to roughly circular with decreasing stress anisotropy. These behaviors simulated by the stress-corrosion model coincide with previously reported field experience. This new modeling approach for time-dependent wellbore failure can be readily constrained with straight forward fracture-mechanics tests on rock samples and has the potential to also be applied to time-dependent, intermittent sand or fines generation during production.
|File Size||530 KB||Number of Pages||9|
Aadnoy, B.S. 1996. Modern Well Design, 71. Rotterdam, Netherlands:A.A. Balkema.
Al-Ajmi, A.M. and Zimmerman, R.W. 2005. Relationship between theMogi and the Coulomb failure criteria. International Journal of RockMechanics and Mining Sciences 42 (3): 431-439.doi:10.1016/j.ijrmms.2004.11.004.
Amanullah, M., Marsden, J.R., and Shaw, H.F. 1994. Effects of rock-fluid interactions onthe petrofabric and stress-strain behaviour of mudrocks. Paper SPE 28030presented at Rock Mechanics in Petroleum Engineering, Delft, The Netherlands,29-31 August. doi: 10.2118/28030-MS.
Atkinson, B.K. 1984. Subcritical Crack Growth inGeological Material. J. Geophys. Res. 89 (B6):4077-4114. doi:10.1029/JB089iB06p04077.
Atkinson, B.K. and Meredith, P.G. 1987. The theory of subcritical crackgrowth with applications to minerals and rocks. In Fracture Mechanics ofRock, ed. B.K. Atkinson, 111-166. London: Geology Series, AcademicPress.
Berland, S.A. 1993. Modeling and Field Evaluation of Time-dependent BoreholeCollapse. MS thesis, Rogaland University Centre, Stavanger, Norway.
Bruner, W.M. 1980. Effects of Time-dependent Crack Growth on the Unroofingand Unloading Behavior of Rocks. PhD dissertation, University of California atLos Angeles, Los Angeles, California.
Bruno, M.S., Dorfmann, A., Lao, K., and Honeger, C. 2001. Coupled particleand fluid flow modeling of fracture and slurry injection in weakly consolidatedgranular media. Proc., 38th US Rock Mechanics Symposium (DC Rocks 2001),Washington, DC, 7-10 July, Paper 139, 173-180.
Charles, R.J. 1958. StaticFatigue of Glass. I. J. Appl. Phys. 29 (11): 1549-1553.doi:10.1063/1.1722991.
Charles, R.J. 1959. The Strength of Silicate Glasses and Some CrystallineOxides, Fracture. Proc., International Conference on the AtomicMechanisms of Fracture, Swampscott, Massachusetts, USA, 12-16 April,225-249.
Chen, G. 2001. A Study of Wellbore Stability in Shales includingPoroelastic, Chemical, and Thermal Effects. PhD dissertation, University ofTexas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
Cundall, P.A. and Strack, O.D.L. 1979. A discrete element model forgranular assemblies. Géotechnique 29 (1): 47-65.doi:10.1680/geot.19126.96.36.199.
Drucker, D.C. and Prager, W. 1952. Soil mechanics and plastic analysis orlimit design. Quarterly Journal of Applied Mathematics 10:157-165.
Evans, A.G. 1972. A methodfor evaluating the time-dependent failure characteristics of brittlematerials--and its application to polycrystalline aluminia. Journal ofMaterials Science 7 (10): 1137-1146.doi:10.1007/BF00550196.
Ewy, R.T. 1999. Wellbore-Stability Predictions by Useof a Modified Lade Criterion. SPE Drill & Compl 14(2): 85-91. SPE-56862-PA. doi: 10.2118/56862-PA.
Fjær, E., Holt, R.M., Horsrud, P., Raaen, A.M., and Risnes, R. 1992.Petroleum Related Rock Mechanics, No. 33. Amsterdam: Developments inPetroleum Science, Elsevier.
Goodman, R.E. 1989. Introduction to Rock Mechanics, second edition.New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Grenet, L. 1899. Mechanical Strength of Glass. Bull. Soc. Encour. Ind.Nat. Paris 5 (4): 838-848.
Hawkes, C. and McLellan, P. 1999. A New Model for Predicting Time-DependentFailure of Shales: Theory and Application. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 38 (12): 49-55.
Holder, J., Olson, J.E., and Philip, Z. 2001. Experimental determination ofsubcritical crack growth parameters in sedimentary rock. Geophys. Res.Lett. 28 (4): 599-602. doi:10.1029/2000GL011918.
Horsrud, P., Holt, R.M., Sonstebo, E.F., Svano, G., and Bostrom, B. 1994. Time dependent borehole stability:Laboratory studies and numerical simulation of different mechanisms inshale. Paper SPE 28060 presented at Rock Mechanics in PetroleumEngineering, Delft, The Netherlands, 29-31 August. doi: 10.2118/28060-MS.
Itasca Consulting Group. 1999. PFC2D (Particle Flow Code in 2 Dimensions),Version 2.0. Minneapolis, Minnesota: ICG.
Kemeny, J.M. and Cook, N.G.W. 1991. Time-dependent Borehole Stability underMechanical and Thermal Stresses: Application to Underground Nuclear WasteStorage. Proc., 32nd US Rock Mechanics Symposium-Rock Mechanics as aMultidisciplinary Science, Norman, Oklahoma, USA, 10-12 July, 977-986.
Kranz, R.L. 1979. Crack growth anddevelopment during creep of Barre granite. International Journal of RockMechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts 16(1): 23-35. doi:10.1016/0148-9062(79)90772-1.
Lawn, B.R. and Wilshaw, T.R. 1975. Fracture of Brittle Solids.Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Lockner, D.A. 1998. Ageneralized law for brittle deformation of Westerly granite. J. Geophys.Res. 103 (B3): 5107-5123. doi:10.1029/97JB03211.
Mastin, L.G. 1984. Development of borehole breakouts in sandstone. MSthesis, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California (unpublished).
Mody, F.K. and Hale, A.H. 1993. Borehole-Stability Model To Couplethe Mechanics and Chemistry of Drilling-Fluid/Shale Interactions. J. PetTech 45 (11): 1093-1101. SPE-25728-PA. doi:10.2118/25728-PA.
Olson, J.E. 1993. JointPattern Development: Effects of Subcritical Crack Growth and Mechanical CrackInteraction. J. Geophys. Res. 98 (B7): 12251-12265.doi:10.1029/93JB00779.
Papazis, P.K. 2005. Petrographic Characterization of the Barnett Shale, FortWorth Basin, Texas. MS thesis, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas(Summer 2005).
Park, N. 2006. Discrete Element Modeling of Rock Fracture Behavior: FractureToughness and Time-Dependent Fracture Growth. PhD dissertation, University ofTexas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
Park, N., Olson, J.E., Holder, J., and Rijken, P. 2006. DEM Analysis ofSubcritical Crack Growth: Effect of Diagenesis and Stress. Paper 06-1099presented at the 41st US Symposium on Rock Mechanics (Golden Rocks), Golden,Colorado, USA, 19-21 June.
Plumb, R.A. and Hickman, S.H. 1985. Stress-induced boreholeelongation: A comparison between the four-arm dipmeter and the boreholeteleviewer in the Auburn geothermal well. Journal of GeophysicalResearch 90 (B7): 5513-5521. doi:10.1029/JB090iB07p05513.
Potyondy, D.O. 2005. Formulation of a Bonded-Particle Model to SimulateStress Corrosion in Rock. Proc., 11th International Conference onFracture (ICF11), Turin, Italy, March, CD Abstracts, Extended Abstract3469.
Potyondy, D.O. and Cundall, P.A. 1999. Modeling of Notch Formation in theURL Mine-by Tunnel: Phase IV--Enhancements to the PFC Model of Rock. TechnicalReport 06819-REP-01200-10002-R00, Nuclear Waste Management Division, OntarioHydro, Ontario, Canada.
Potyondy, D.O. and Cundall, P.A. 2004. A bonded-particle modelfor rock. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and MiningSciences 41 (8): 1329-1364.doi:10.1016/j.ijrmms.2004.09.011.
Potyondy, D.O., Cundall, P.A., and Lee, C.A. 1996. Modeling Rock UsingBonded Assemblies of Circular Particles. In Rock Mechanics Tools andTechniques (Proceedings of the Second North American Rock MechanicsSymposium, Montréal, June 1996), ed. M. Aubertin, 1937-1944. Rotterdam, TheNetherlands: A.A. Balkema.
Remvik, F. 1995. Shale-fluid Interaction and its Effect on Creep.Proc., 8th International Congress on Rock Mechanics, Berichte Tokyo,Japan, 25-30 September, 307-309.
Remvik, F. and Skalle, P. 1993. Shale-fluid interactionunder simulated downhole conditions, and its effects on borehole stability.International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science &Geomechanics Abstracts 30 (7): 1115-1118.doi:10.1016/0148-9062(93)90080-W.
Rijken, M.C.M. 2005. Modeling naturally fractured reservoirs: Fromexperimental rock mechanics to flow simulation. PhD dissertation, University ofTexas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
Scholz, C.H. 1968. Mechanism of Creep in BrittleRock. J. Geophys. Res. 73 (10): 3295-3302.doi:10.1029/JB073i010p03295.
Speidel, M.O. 1971. Theory of stress corrosion cracking in alloys. In TheTheory of Stress Corrosion Cracking in Alloys, ed. J.C. Scully, 289-355.Brussels, Belgium: NATO Scientific Affairs Division.
Zoback, M.D., Moos, D., Mastin, L., and Anderson, R.N. 1985. Well bore breakouts andin-situ stress. Journal of Geophysical Research 90(B7): 5523-5530. doi:10.1029/JB090iB07p05523.