Stacking Seismograms to Improve Microseismic Images
- Julie E. Shemeta (Pinnacle Technologies) | Shawn C. Maxwell (Pinnacle Technologies) | Norman R. Warpinski (Pinnacle Technologies) | Charles K. Waltman (Pinnacle Technologies) | Zachary D. Phillips (Cabot Oil & Gas Corporation) | Thomas G. Riebel (Pinnacle Technologies) | James Kinser (Bill Barrett Corporation) | Gregory S.T. Hinds (Bill Barrett Corporation) | Trent W. Green (BOPCO, L.P.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- February 2009
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 156 - 164
- 2009. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.8.2 Shale Gas, 5.1.7 Seismic Processing and Interpretation, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 3 Production and Well Operations, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 1.2 Wellbore Design, 5.8.1 Tight Gas, 2.2.2 Perforating, 4.3.4 Scale, 2.4.5 Gravel pack design & evaluation
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Microseismic mapping's primary limitation is its viewing distance, which is affected by noise, attenuation, and the intrinsic size of the source event. In the Rocky Mountains, the required viewing distances are often less than typical offset-well spacings, making accurate mapping difficult in many fields. A new approach to improving microseismic mapping capabilities is to digitally stack the signals from separate adjacent receivers to obtain noise cancellation. This approach requires large numbers of receivers and fast telemetry rates to obtain the necessary data. An experiment has been conducted in the Uintah basin with a 12 level receiver array in which 3 of the 12 levels consisted of triple receiver stacks. The improvement in the signal quality consists of reduced noise, improved hodogram linearity, and clearer phase arrivals. The subsequent microseismic maps using stacked data are both more accurate and contain more events that can be analyzed.
Mapping of hydraulic fractures using the microseismic method has proven to be a major factor in the development of "technology plays" such as the Barnett shale (Fisher et al. 5004; Fisher et al. 2002; Maxwell et al. 2002; Warpinski et al. 2004; Maxwell et al. 2004) and tight gas sands (Wolhart et al. 2005; Wolhart et al. 2006). The measurement of fracture dimensions and growth, with respect to areal coverage, height growth, natural-fracture interactions, staging of both horizontal and vertical wells, and many other factors, has proven to be of great value in understanding how to optimize development. Well layout and spacing, numbers of stages, flow rates and volumes, wellbore design, and the assessment of mechanical problems are some of the factors that can be evaluated using fracture mapping technology.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||9|
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