Finite-Element Studies of Near-Wellbore Region During Cementing Operations: Part I
- Kenneth E. Gray (University of Texas at Austin) | Evgeny Podnos (University of Texas at Austin) | Eric Becker (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- March 2009
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 127 - 136
- 2009. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.14.3 Cement Formulation (Chemistry, Properties), 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 2.2.2 Perforating, 2.7.1 Completion Fluids, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 1.7.2 Managed Pressure Drilling, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 1.2.2 Geomechanics, 4.3.4 Scale, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.4.6 Thermal Methods, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 1,595 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
A wellbore cement sheath is expected to provide zonal isolation and borehole integrity during well construction and well life. Mechanical interactions of the cement sheath to existing and operationally induced stresses, along with other elements in proximity to the wellbore, have increasingly large technical, economic, and environmental ramifications.
Staged-finite-element procedures during well construction consider sequentially the stress states and displacements at and near the wellbore. The model replicates complicated stress states arising from simultaneous action of far-field stresses, overburden pressure, cement hardening and shrinkage, debonding at the interfaces, and plastic flow of cement sheath and rock formation. At present, temperature, flow, and poroelasticity effects are not included. The technique tracks the time-dependent behavior of cement slurry, curing (with or without shrinkage), and hardened cement during the critical period after slurry placement.
Material models for casing, cement, and rock formation and failure criteria for cement, formation, and interface bonds were calibrated using published information and experimental data. Calculations were conducted for various loading and unloading scenarios, geometric configurations, properties of rock formations, and cement-slurry formulations. Results are discussed in terms of field implication;, for example: (1) Interface microchannels may or may not develop, depending upon shrinkage magnitudes; and (2) simplifying modeling assumptions that are often used, such as 2D stresses and/or deformations, may obscure critical casing, cement, and formation behavior in the wellbore region and in the producing horizon.
This paper, part of a series quantifying the interacting physical components and processes at and near the wellbore region, initiates useful comparisons of analytical results and field realities. The series illustrates and compares results and practical implications from simple to increasingly complex, but more realistic, assumptions, such as isotropic/directional-stress states and isotropic/anisotropic casing, cement, and formation-material parameters.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||10|
API TR 10TR2, Shrinkage and Expansion in Oilwell Cements, firstedition. 1997. Washington, DC: API.
Backe, K.R., Lile, O.B., Lyomov, S.K., Elvebakk, H., and Skalle, P. 1997. Characterizing Curing Cement Slurriesby Permeability, Tensile Strength and Shrinkage. Paper SPE 38267 presentedat the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Long Beach, California, USA, 25-27 June.DOI: 10.2118/38267-MS.
Baumgarte, C., Thiercelin, M., and Klaus, D. 1999. Case Studies of Expanding Cement toPrevent Microannular Formation. Paper SPE 56535 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 3-6 October. DOI:10.2118/56535-MS.
Bosma, M., Ravi, K., van Driel, W., and Schreppers, G.J. 1999. Design Approach to Sealant Selectionfor the Life of the Well. Paper SPE 56536 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 3-6 October. DOI:10.2118/56536-MS.
Boukhelifa, L., Moroni, N., James, S.G., Le Roy-Delage, S., Thiercelin,M.J., and Lemaire, G. 2005. Evaluation of Cement Systems for Oil-and Gas-Well Zonal Isolation in a Full-Scale Annular Geometry. SPE Drill& Compl 20 (1): 44-53. SPE-87195-PA. DOI:10.2118/87195-PA.
Chenevert, M.E. and Jin, L. 1989. Model for Predicting Wellbore Pressures in Cement Columns. Paper SPE 19521presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio,Texas, USA, 8-11 October. DOI: 10.2118/19521-MS.
Chenevert, M.E. and Shrestha, B.K. 1991. Chemical Shrinkage Properties ofOilfield Cements. SPE Drill Eng 6 (1): 37-43.SPE-16654-PA. DOI: 10.2118/16654-PA.
Dean, G.D. and Torres, R.S. 2002. Novel Cement System for ImprovedZonal Isolation in Steam Injection Wells. Paper SPE 78995 presented at theSPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium and InternationalHorizontal Well Technology Conference, Calgary, 4-7 November. DOI:10.2118/78995-MS.
di Lullo, G. and Rae, P. 2000. Cements for Long TermIsolation--Design Optimization by Computer Modelling and Prediction. PaperSPE 62745 presented at IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology, Kuala Lumpur,11-13 September. DOI: 10.2118/62745-MS.
Fleckenstein, W.W., Eustes, A.W., and Miller, M.G. 2000. Burst Induced Stresses in CementedWellbores. Paper SPE 62596 presented at the SPE/AAPG Western RegionalMeeting, Long Beach, California, USA, 19-23 June. DOI: 10.2118/62596-MS.
Fourmaintraux, D., Bois. A.-P., Franco, C., Fraboulet, B., and Brossollet,P. 2005. Efficient Wellbore CementSheath Design Using the SRC (System Response Curve) Method. Paper SPE 94176presented at the SPE Europec/EAGE Annual Conference, Madrid, Spain, 13-16 June.DOI: 10.2118/94176-MS.
Heathman, J. and Beck, F.E. 2006. Finite Element Analysis CouplesCasing and Cement Designs for HP/HT Wells in East Texas. Paper SPE 98869presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, Miami, Florida, USA, 21-23February. DOI: 10.2118/98869-MS.
Hubbert, M.K. and Willis, D.G. 1957. Mechanics of hydraulic fracturing. InPetroleum Development and Technology. Transactions of the American Instituteof Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, Vol. 210, 153-168. Littleton,Colorado: AIME.
James, S. and Boukhelifa, L. 2008. Zonal Isolation Modeling andMeasurements--Past Myths and Today's Realities. SPE Drill &Compl 23 (1): 68-75. SPE-101310-PA. DOI:10.2118/101310-PA.
Le Roy-Delage, S., Baumgarte, C., Thiercelin, M., and Vidick, B. 2000. New Cement Systems for Durable ZonalIsolation. Paper SPE 59132 presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference,New Orleans, 23-25 February. DOI: 10.2118/59132-MS.
Mueller, D.T., GoBoncan, V., Dillenbeck, R.L., and Heinhold, T. 2004. CharacterizingCasing-Cement-Formation Interactions Under Stress Conditions: Impact onLong-Term Zonal Isolation. Paper SPE 90450 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 26-29 September. DOI:10.2118/90450-MS.
Nelson, E.B. ed. 1990. Well Cementing. Oxford, UK: Developments inPetroleum Science series, Elsevier.
Obert, L. and Duvall, W.I. 1967. Rock Mechanics and the Design ofStructures in Rock. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Parcevaux, P.A. and Sault, P.H. 1984. Cement Shrinkage and Elasticity: ANew Approach to a Good Zonal Isolation. Paper SPE 13176 prepared forpresentation at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston,16-19 September. DOI: 10.2118/13176-MS.
Pattillo, P.D. and Kristiansen, T.G. 2002. Analysis of Horizontal CasingIntegrity in the Valhall Field. Paper SPE 78204 presented at the SPE/ISRMRock Mechanics Conference, Irving, Texas, USA, 20-23 October. DOI:10.2118/78204-MS.
Ravi, K., Bosma, M., and Gastebled, O. 2002a. Improve the Economics of Oil and GasWells by Reducing the Risk of Cement Failure. Paper SPE 74497 presented atthe IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, Dallas, 26-28 February. DOI:10.2118/74497-MS.
Ravi, K., Bosma, M., and Gastebled, O. 2002b. Safe and Economic Gas Wells ThroughCement Design for Life of the Well. Paper SPE 75700 presented at the SPEGas Technology Symposium, Calgary, 30 April-2 May. DOI: 10.2118/75700-MS.
Ravi, K., Bosma, M., and Hunter, L. 2003. Optimizing the Cement Sheath Designin HPHT Shearwater Field. Paper SPE 79905 presented at the SPE/IADCDrilling Conference, Amsterdam, 19-21 February. DOI: 10.2118/79905-MS.
Rodriguez, W.J., Fleckenstein, W.W., and Eustes, A.W. 2003. Simulation of Collapse Loads onCemented Casing Using Finite Element Analysis. Paper SPE 84566 presented atthe SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 5-8 October. DOI:10.2118/84566-MS.
Sabins, F.L. and Sutton, D.L. 1986. The Relationship of Thickening Time,Gel Strength, and Compressive Strength of Oilwell Cements. SPE ProdEng 1 (2): 143-152. SPE-11205-PA. DOI: 10.2118/11205-PA.
Sabins, F.L. and Sutton, D.L. 1991. Interrelationship Between CriticalCement Properties and Volume Changes During Cement Setting. SPE DrillEng 6 (2): 88-94; Trans., AIME, 291.SPE-20451-PA. DOI: 10.2118/20451-PA.
Schlumberger. 2006. Well Services Field Data Handbook (i-Handbook),version 1,0,4,2. http://www.slb.com/content/services/resources/software/ihandbook.asp?entry=oilfield/ihandbook&
Seidel, F.A. and Greene, T.G. 1985. Use of Expanding Cement ImprovesBonding and Aids in Eliminating Annular Gas Migration in Hobbs Grayburg-SanAndres Wells. Paper SPE 14434 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, 22-25 September. DOI:10.2118/14434-MS.
Shahri, M.A., Schubert, J.J., and Amani, M. 2005. Detectingand Modeling Cement Failure in High-Pressure/High-Temperature (HP/HT) Wells,Using Finite Element Method (FEM). Paper IPTC 10961 presented at theInternational Petroleum Technology Conference, Doha, 21-23 November. DOI:10.2523/10961-MS.
SIMULIA. Abaqus/CAE User's Manual. http://www.simulia.com/support/documentation.html.
Stiles, D. and Hollies, D. 2002. Implementation of Advanced CementingTechniques to Improve Long Term Zonal Isolation in Steam Assisted GravityDrainage Wells. Paper SPE 78950 presented at the SPE International ThermalOperations and Heavy Oil Symposium and International Horizontal Well TechnologyConference, Calgary, 4-7 November. DOI: 10.2118/78950-MS.
Thiercelin, M.J., Dargaud, B., Baret, J.F., and Rodriquez, W.J. 1998. Cement Design Based on CementMechanical Response. SPE Drill & Compl 13 (4):266-273. SPE-52890-PA. DOI: 10.2118/52890-PA.
TNO DIANA User Manuals. TNO. http://www.tnodiana.com/.