Critical Conditions for Effective Sand-Sized Solids Transport in Horizontal and High-Angle Wells
- Mingqin Duan (Chevron E&P) | Stefan Z. Miska (University of Tulsa) | Mengjiao Yu (University of Tulsa) | Nicholas E. Takach (University of Tulsa) | Ramadan M. Ahmed (University of Oklahoma) | Claudia M. Zettner (ExxonMobil)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- June 2009
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 229 - 238
- 2009. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 1.7.2 Managed Pressure Drilling, 2 Well Completion, 3 Production and Well Operations, 1.6.6 Directional Drilling, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 1.7.7 Cuttings Transport, 2.7.1 Completion Fluids, 4.3.4 Scale, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment
- hole cleaning, horizontal, critical velocity, drilling fluid, sand
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 1,552 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Effective removal of small, sand-sized solids is critical for successful drilling and completion operations in sand reservoirs. Recent experience in extended-reach drilling also indicates that inefficient transport of smaller cuttings is a main factor for excessive drag and torque. This study was undertaken to determine two critical conditions for efficient transport of small solids. The two conditions are represented by the critical resuspension velocity (CRV), the minimum fluid velocity necessary to initiate solids-bed erosion, and the critical deposition velocity (CDV), the minimum fluid velocity required to prevent bed formation.
Experiments were conducted in a field-scale flow loop (8 × 4.5 in., 100 ft long) to determine CRV and CDV for 0.45-mm and 1.4-mm sands in different fluids over a range of bed heights and hole inclinations. The results show that, depending on sand size and fluid properties, CDV is approximately two to three times larger than CRV. Water is more effective than low-concentration polymer solutions for bed erosion. However, polymer solutions are more helpful than water in preventing bed formation. This indicates the need for different drilling fluids for cleanout and drilling operations.
A mechanistic model was developed to predict CRV for a solids bed. Both experimental and theoretical results indicate the importance of interparticle forces that are incorporated into the model. The model accounts for drillpipe eccentricity in any direction in an annulus, which is consistent with experimental observations. The model predictions are in good agreement with experimental results. Existing CDV correlations developed for larger cuttings were verified by experimental data for sands. The differences are approximately 25%. Results in this study will be useful not only in drilling and completion through sand reservoirs, but also in extended-reach drilling and sand control.
|File Size||614 KB||Number of Pages||10|
Ahmed, R. 2001. Mathematical modelling and experimental investigation onsolids and cuttings transport. PhD dissertation, Norwegian University ofScience and Technology, Trondheim, Norway (March 2001).
Bird, R.B., Steward, W.E., and Lightfoot, E.N. 1960. TransportPhenomena. New York: Wiley and Sons Publishing.
Clark, R.K. and Bickham, K.L. 1994. A Mechanistic Model for CuttingsTransport. Paper SPE 28306 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conferenceand Exhibition, New Orleans, 25-28 September. doi: 10.2118/28306-MS.
Dodge, D.W. and Metzner, A.B. 1959. Turbulent Flow of Non-NewtonianSystems. AIChE Journal 5 (2): 189-204.doi:10.1002/aic.690050214.
Duan, M., Miska, S., Yu, M., Takach, N., Ahmed, R., and Zettner, C. 2008. Transport of Small Cuttings inExtended-Reach Drilling. SPE Drill & Compl 23 (3):258-265. SPE-104192-PA. doi: 10.2118/104192-PA.
Ford, J.T., Peden, J.M., Oyeneyin, M.B., Gao, E., and Zarrough, R. 1990. Experimental Investigation of DrilledCuttings Transport in Inclined Boreholes. Paper SPE 20421 presented at theSPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 23-26 September.doi: 10.2118/20421-MS.
Gerhart, P.M, Gross, R.J., and Hochstein, J.I. 1992. Fundamentals ofFluid Mechanics, second edition. New York: Addison-Wesley PublishingCompany.
Graham, D.I. and Jones, T.E.R. 1994. Settling and transport ofspherical particles in power-law fluids at finite Reynolds number. J. ofNon-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 54 (August): 465-488. doi:10.1016/0377-0257(94)80037-5.
Hiemenz, P.C. 1986. Principles of Colloid and Surface Chemistry,second edition. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Hjulström, F. 1935. Studies of the morphological activity of rivers asillustrated by river Fyris. University of Uppsala Geological InstituteBulletin 25: 221-557.
Kallio, G.A. and Reeks, M.W. 1989. A numerical simulation ofparticle deposition in turbulent boundary layers. Intl. J. of MultiphaseFlow 15 (3): 433-446. doi:10.1016/0301-9322(89)90012-8.
Kamp, A.M. and Rivero, M. 1999. Layer Modeling for Cuttings Transportin Highly Inclined Wellbores. Paper SPE 53942 presented at the LatinAmerican and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Caracas, Venezuela,21-23 April. doi: 10.2118/53942-MS.
Kurose, R. and Komori, S. 1999. Drag and lift forces on arotating sphere in a linear shear flow. J. of Fluid Mechanics384: 183-206. doi:10.1017/S0022112099004164.
Larsen, T.I, Pilehvari, A.A., and Azar, J.J. 1993. Development of a NewCuttings-Transport Model for High-Angle Wellbores Including HorizontalWells. SPE Drill & Compl 12 (2): 129-136.SPE-25872-PA. doi: 10.2118/25872-PA.
Li, Y. and Kuru, E. 2004. Prediction of Critical Foam Velocityfor Effective Cuttings Transport in Horizontal Wells. Paper SPE 89324presented at the SPE/ICoTA Coiled Tubing Conference and Exhibition, Houston,23-24 March. doi: 10.2118/89324-MS.
Liang, S.-C., Hong, T., and Fan, L.-S. 1996. Effects of particlearrangements on the drag force of a particle in the intermediate flowregime. Intl. J. of Multiphase Flow 22 (2): 285-306.doi:10.1016/0301-9322(95)00070-4.
Martins, A.L. and Santana, C.C. 1992. Evaluation of Cuttings Transport inHorizontal and Near Horizontal Wells--A Dimensionless Approach. Paper SPE23643 presented at the SPE Latin American Petroleum Engineering Conference,Caracas, Venezuela, 8-11 March. doi: 10.2118/23643-MS.
Özbayoglu, E.M. 2002. Cuttings Transport With Foam in Horizontal andHighly-Inclined Wellbores. PhD dissertation, University of Tulsa, Tulsa,Oklahoma.
Parker, D.J. 1987. An experimental study of the effects of hole washout andcutting size on annular hole cleaning in highly deviated wells. MS thesis,University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Reed, T.D. and Pilehvari, A.A. 1993. A New Model for Laminar, Transitionaland Turbulent Flow of Drilling Muds. Paper SPE 25456 presented an the SPEProduction Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, 21-23 March.doi: 10.2118/25456-MS.
Saffman, P.G. 1965. The lift on small sphere ina slow shear flow. J. of Fluid Mechanics 22 (2):385-400. doi:10.1017/S0022112065000824.
Sanchez, R.A. 1997. Modeling of drilled cuttings bed erosion in highlyinclined wells. MS thesis, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Schenkel, J.H. and Kitchener, J.A. 1960. A test of theDerjaguin-Verwey-Overbeek theory with a colloidal suspension. Trans.Faraday Soc. 56: 161-173. doi:10.1039/tf9605600161.
Schlichting, H. 1955. Boundary Layer Theory, trans. J. Kestin. NewYork: McGraw-Hill.
Schlichting, H. and Gersten, K. 2000. Boundary-Layer Theory, trans.K. Mayes, eighth edition. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Shah, S.N. and Lord, D.L. 2004. Critical velocity correlationsfor slurry transport with non-Newtonian fluids. AIChE J.37 (6): 863-870. doi:10.1002/aic.690370609.
Van De Ven, T.G.M. 1989. Colloidal Hydrodynamics. London: ColloidScience Monographs Series, Academic Press.
Yu, A.B., Feng, C.L., Zou, R.P., and Yang, R.Y. 2003. On the relationshipbetween porosity and interparticle forces. Powder Technology130 (1-3): 20-76. doi:10.1016/S0032-5910(02)00228-0.