Design and Implementation of Retention/Filtration Media for Sand Control
- David R. Underdown (Chevron Corp.) | Sam Hopkins (Purolator Facet, Inc.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- September 2008
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 235 - 241
- 2008. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.8 Formation Damage, 2.4.4 Screen Selection, 2 Well Completion, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 2.4.5 Gravel pack design & evaluation, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 922 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The factors that control the performance of sand-control screens that use woven metal mesh as the filter media (i.e., commonly called premium screens), are not, generally, well understood by the end user. The end user is told that premium sand-control screens use filter media such as Dutch, Dutch Twill, or a Reverse Dutch Twill woven metal mesh, and in some cases the manufacturer will promote the benefit of multiple layers of woven-metal-mesh filter in the screen to control the sand. All this information is interesting, but the end user really does not understand the significance of the information.
This paper presents the results of a study to evaluate the effect of different metal-mesh weaves on the performance (e.g., dirt holding capacity, and plugging tendency) of media commonly used in sand-control screens. The work also introduces a new approach to designing sand-control screens that use woven-metal-mesh material. The performance criteria used in the evaluation of different designs for the filter media include the control of solids and the impact of particle size distribution on the formation of plugging on the surface and in the filtration media. Laboratory testing demonstrates that use of a different type of construction of the retention/filtration media allows for greater performance than media currently used in premium sand-control screens.
The significance of the approach discussed in this paper is the ability to design and engineer a premium sand-control screen with a retention/filtration medium for a given particle size distribution of the formation that allows for maximum oil production and minimum solids production. Critical to the success of this approach to designing sand-control screens is the thorough evaluation/testing of multiple media types to create the "formation specific" design.
There has been a lot of work done over the years dealing with the selection and testing of sand-control screens (see references). The initial work in the industry focused on determining the optimum slot width for a slotted liner or wire-wrapped screen based on bridging theory. Over the past several years, sand-control screens that use some type of woven metal mesh, which are generally called premium screens, came on the market. The criteria for selecting the premium screens initially used the same bridging theory as wire-wrapped screens. As more and more premium-screen manufacturers provided more and more different types of screens, a need grew to evaluate the performance of the premium screens. Various methods were developed that evaluated the performance of the premium screens on the basis of some version of a plugging test.
Even with the advent of the various plugging tests, much is not understood about woven-metal-mesh sand-control screens. One supplier will advertise a 250-µ sand-control screen, and another will advertise the same thing but will claim it is "better," meaning that it takes the "better" sand-control screen longer to plug than the competition. The end user may then conduct some type of "plugging tests" to confirm the claims of the manufacturers and choose the sand-control screen that takes the longest to plug for the completion. However, the end user is faced with the real fact that it will not be too long before another manufacturer will show up claiming to have an even better sand-control screen because of a new type of woven metal mesh.
There are a large number of weaves that the sand-control screen manufacturers have to choose from, and these manufacturers are not experts in the area of woven metal meshes. Therefore, several types are generally tested by the screen manufacturer in order to provide the best product for the customer, yet provide a competitive advantage for the company. This is just good business. The manufacturer and the end user, however, still do not really understand why one weave works better than another from one application to another. This paper does not attempt to explain how or why one weave is better than another for different applications. The purpose of this paper is to show the results of a methodical approach to evaluating different weave types for different formations and a unique approach to optimizing premium sand-control screens.
|File Size||656 KB||Number of Pages||7|
Ballard, T. and Beare, S. 2003. Media Sizing for Premium SandScreens: Dutch Twill Weaves. Paper SPE 82244 presented at the SPE EuropeanFormation Damage Conference, The Hague, 13-14 May. doi: 10.2118/82244-MS
Ballard, T. and Beare, S.P. 2006. Sand Retention Testing: The More YouDo, the Worse It Gets. Paper SPE 98308 presented at the InternationalSymposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana,USA, 15-17 February. doi: 10.2118/98308-MS
Ballard, T., Kageson-Loe, N., and Mathisen, A.M. 1999. The Development and Application of aMethod for the Evaluation of Sand Screens. Paper SPE 54745 presented at theSPE European Formation Damage Control Conference, The Hague, 31 May-1 June.doi: 10.2118/54745-MS
Coberly, C.J. 1937. Selection of Screen Openings for Unconsolidated Sands.In API Drilling and Production Practice. Washington, DC: AmericanPetroleum Institute.
Constien, V. and Skidmore, V. 2006. Standalone Screen Selection UsingPerformance Mastercurves. Paper SPE 98363 presented at the InternationalSymposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana,USA, 15-17 February. doi: 10.2118/98363-MS
Gillespie, G., Deem, C.K., and Malbrel, C. 2000. Screen Selection for Sand ControlBased on Laboratory Tests. Paper SPE 64398 presented at the SPE AsiaPacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Brisbane, Australia, 16-18October. doi: 10.2118/64398-MS
Hodge, R., Burton, R., Constien, V., and Skidmore, V. 2002. An Experimental Method forScreen-Only and Gravel-Pack Completions. Paper SPE 73772 presented at theInternational Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette,Louisiana, USA, 20-21 February. doi: 10.2118/73772-MS
Markestad, P., Christie, O., Espedal, A., and Rørvik, O. 1996. The Selection of Screen Slot Width ToPrevent Plugging and Sand Production. Paper SPE 31087 presented at the SPEFormation Damage Control Symposium, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 14-15 February.doi: 10.2118/31087-MS
Rodgers, E. 1971. Sand Control in Oil and Gas Wells. Oil and GasJournal (November): 54-68.
Saucier, R.J. 1974. Considerations in Gravel PackDesign. JPT 26 (2): 205-212; Trans., AIME, 257.SPE-4030-PA doi: 10.2118/4030-PA
Tiffin, D.L., King, G.E., Larese, R.E., and Britt, L.K. 1998. New Criteria for Gravel and ScreenSelection for Sand Control. Paper SPE 39437 presented at the SPE FormationDamage Control Conference, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 18-19 February. doi:10.2118/39437-MS
Ting, K.C., Wakeman, R.J., and Nassehi, V. 2006. Modelling flow inmonofilament filter cloths: 2. Effect of weave structure and non-newtonianfluid properties on pressure losses. Filtration 6 (3):242-249.
Underdown, D.R., Dickerson, R.C., and Vaughan, W. 1999. The Nominal Sand Control Screen: ACritical Evaluation of Screen Performance. Paper SPE 56591 presented at theSPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 3-6 October. doi:10.2118/56591-MS
Underdown, D.R. and Sanclemente, J. 2003. Producing Sand for Sand Control: ANovel Approach. Paper SPE 74394 presented at the SPE InternationalPetroleum Conference and Exhibition in Mexico, Villahermosa, Mexico, 10-12February. doi: 10.2118/74394-MS
Williams, C.F., Richard, B.M., and Horner, D. 2006. A New Sizing Criterion forConformable and Nonconformable Sand Screens Based on Uniform PoreStructures. Paper SPE 98235 presented at the International Symposium andExhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 15-17February. doi: 10.2118/98235-MS