Hydrogen Sulfide Measurement With Wireless Technology
- Adam Wilson (JPT Special Publications Editor)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- August 2015
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 119 - 121
- 2015. Society of Petroleum Engineers
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- 48 since 2007
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This article, written by Special Publications Editor Adam Wilson, contains highlights of paper SPE 171720, “H2S Measurement Using Wireless Technology,” by P. Phelan, A.-R. Shames Khouri, and H.A. Wahed, Abu Dhabi Gas Industries, prepared for the 2014 Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, 10–13 November. The paper has not been peer reviewed.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) represents a major hazard in oil and gas production, and the efficient and reliable detection of gas leaks is a critical safety aspect. Wireless-detection systems offer an opportunity to expand the measurement area. This paper reviews a specific application of wireless technology in gas detection and details the steps taken to assess the integrity of the wireless system and the considerations necessary to ensure the reliability and availability of the signal transmission.
Wireless-Sensor Networks (WSNs)
WSNs are an alternative to hard-wired systems where the cabling is replaced by radio-frequency (RF) transmission of the measured data into a host system. The network may be point-to-point or meshed transmission. Meshed transmission allows for multiple alternative routes and, therefore, offers potential improvements in the ability of the system to ensure that the data are delivered to the host system.
WSNs have been developed since 2003 on the basis of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 802.15.4, which defines the operating frequency of 2.4 GHz and other aspects of the basic physical layer of communication. This is currently adopted by the process industry as the essential foundation for most wireless-measurement systems.
Subsequent to the definition of the physical layer for communication, the HART Foundation, which was originally established to define protocols for serial data communication between cabled field devices, was extended to cover WSN technology. This wireless HART technology was subsequently approved by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 2006 as IEC Standard 62591. A parallel development was undertaken by the International Society of Automation (ISA) in the US under the ISA 100.11a standard in 2009. Each of these standards seeks to establish interoperability of the different equipment manufacturers, and it is important that this convergence be achieved to prevent development and adoption delays.
The development of battery technology is also an important aspect of WSNs. Significant advances in battery design, solar-cell charging, and energy harvesting are expected to play an active role in the future. In present systems, sophisticated software is used to turn on and wake up components to minimize power consumption. It is also imperative that monitoring of battery status be managed actively by the host system.
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