Managing an Export Manifold To Ensure Gas Deliverability
- Dennis Denney (JPT Senior Technology Editor)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- April 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 109 - 111
- 2012. International Petroleum Technology Conference
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 51 since 2007
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This article, written by Senior Technology Editor Dennis Denney, contains highlights of paper IPTC 14425, "Managing an Export Manifold To Ensure Gas Deliverability," by A. Priambudi, R.N. Baraba, N.W. Tranggono, and B. Aryanto, Vico Indonesia, prepared for the 2011 International Petroleum Technology Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, rescheduled to 7-9 February 2012. The paper has not been peer reviewed.
The Badak Export Manifold (BEM) is a complex system for gathering all gas delivered from upstream fields and for delivering hydrocarbons to a liquefied-natural-gas (LNG) plant and to commercial sites for the manufacturing of fertilizers and chemicals. The export manifold must maintain pressure, distribute gas flow, implement offtake logic during shutdown, and coordinate gas delivery. Much effort has been invested to improve export-manifold operations. Now, almost all of the BEM parameters can be monitored remotely to support better operation.
Vico Indonesia produces approximately 405 MMscf/D of natural gas and 18,000 B/D of oil and condensate from four fields. The company also coordinates gas production, is pipeline custodian for all producers in East Kalimantan, and is responsible for delivering approximately 2.9 Bscf/D of natural gas gathered from many fields.
The company maintains, operates, and inspects more than 1000 km of pipelines, with a diameter range of 3 to 42 in. The East Kalimantan pipeline net-work is designed to transfer hydrocarbons from outlying processing facilities to the Bontang LNG facility and to other commercial sites in the Kaltim Industrial Estate (KIE).
The BEM (Fig. 1) is the beginning of two 36-in.- and two 42-in.-diameter pipelines that work in parallel toward Bontang. The BEM enables flexibility of gas delivery and maintains gas composition within acceptable specification. The pressure stability and gas specification are the most important aspects of the export-manifold operations. These operations become challenging with changing upstream-field conditions. When the pressure is decreased, the gas composition becomes richer and the gas sup-ply is reduced to a level that is less than the demand for gas and less than pipeline capacity. A quick decision and field action are required immediately to avoid LNG-plant shutdown and gas composition getting out of specification.
In addition to gas composition becoming richer, the pipelines cross hilly terrain that causes liquid holdup (LHU) in the pipelines. The LHU increases the backpressure on the upstream field, which, in turn, restricts natural-gas flow to the plant. Despite the supply flexibility, parallel operation of the pipelines makes the gas tend to flow to the line with less backpressure. The BEM attempts to sweep liquid in the parallel mode by segregating gas flow into a particular pipeline.
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