The Engineering Design of Well Stimulation Treatments
- D.H. Flickinger (Pan American Petroleum Corporation) | C.R. Fast (Pan American Petroleum Corporation)
- Document ID
- Petroleum Society of Canada
- Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- September 1963
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 133 - 135
- 1963. Petroleum Society of Canada
- 3 Production and Well Operations, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 2.1.1 Perforating
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Correlation of the pump rate, fluid additives, tubular goods, andperforating programme can result in appreciable cost reduction in a wellstimulation treatment. The use of a specially designed cross-over valve topermit stimulation treatments to be conducted through manifolded tubing andcasing annulus, after initial formation breakdown through the tubing can resultin greatly increased treatment efficiency and reduced costs. A technique isoutlined for analyzing treatment variables and field examples are used todemonstrate the savings that can be realized by engineering the design of wellstimulation treatments.
The hydraulic fracturing process has been the most successful and widelyused technique to stimulate oil and gas wells. It is estimated that 400,000treatments have been conducted during the 15 years the process has beenavailable and approximately 2,400 jobs per month are now being completed in thefree world's oil and gas producing areas.
The unusually high (80%) success ratio achieved using the process isprobably the major reason that many operators devote little thought andplanning to the hydraulic and mechanical factors involved in a successfultreatment. It is the object of this paper to demonstrate the economicincentives for optimum treatment design with emphasis on correlating thetubular goods arrangement, perforating programme, pump rate and the additivesused. It will be shown that substantial cost reductions are feasible byengineering the design of well stimulation treatments while increasing theefficiency and success probability of the treatment.
Effect of Tubular Goods on Treatment Costs
The total hydraulic horsepower required to pump water into a typical 7,000ft. well with various arrangements of tubular goods is shown graphically onFigure 1. It will be noted that the total hydraulic horsepower consistsof two components: 1) the horsepower necessary to inject fluids into aformation, and 2) the additional horsepower to overcome friction for thevarious combinations of tubular goods.
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