The spatial correlation of the ground deformation at Mt. Tawarayama in Kumamoto City in Japan with the seismic damages of Tawarayama tunnel was developed to explore whether the seismic damages of underground structures are related to the ground deformation. A pair of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) datasets were captured from the high-density airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data before and after the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake. A new variant of Iteratively Closest Point (ICP) algorithm named Combination and Classification ICP (CCICP) was introduced to detect the three-dimensional (3-D) ground deformation field. The results indicated that the strong ground deformation can reflect the seismic performance of the tunnel to some extent. Furthermore, the results of the ground deformation direction validated the assumption of seismic wave propagation along the tunnel. It gives a clear explanation for the mechanism of the seismic damages under the earthquake force, especially lining cracks, pavement damage, and construction joint damage.

1 Introduction

Ground shaking and deformation induced by earth-quakes may cause tremendous forces on long and/or large structures such as rock engineering structures (Aydan 2017). It can yield relevant information about the evolution of the temporal and spatial distribution of the ground deformation. Therefore, it is essential to understand the causes, triggering factors, and mechanisms, in order to delineate the most affected areas and achieve accurate assessment and mitigation of natural and anthropogenic hazards.

Inland earthquake with a magnitude greater than 7 can cause ground shaking and deformation (Park et al. 2018). Record of RTK-GNSS (Real-time Kinematic-Global Navigation Satellite System) time series showed that strong shaking and deformation caused by the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake could be observed at the stations within 100 km from the epicenter. Subjected to the 2016 Kumamoto earth-quake, Tawarayama tunnel in Kumamoto City was severely damaged.

The present study aims at detecting the ground deformation characteristics and studying its correlation with the seismic damages of Tawarayama tunnel during the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake.

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