ABSTRACT:

Systemized in the paper are natural and technogene processes in the rock masses endangering safety of the power projects. The paper gives results of the geodynamic monitoring at large-size power projects sited in the high geodynamic risk regions at the territory of the former USSR

RÉSUMÉ:

Sont systematises les phenomenes geodynamiques naturels et technogenes dans les massifs rocheux presentant du danger pour les ouvrages electriques. Sont notes les resultats du contrôle geodynamique de grands ouvrages electriques situes dans les zones du risque geodynamique eleve sur le territoire de l'ancien URSS.

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG:

Es werden die naturbedingten sowie geodynamischen Vorgange im Felsgebirge systematisiert, die fuer Energiebauwerke die Gefahr, darstellen. Die Ergebnisse der geodynamischen Überwachung und Beobachtung grober Energiebauwerke werden angegeben, die in Bereichen des hohen geodynamischen Risikos auf dem Territorium des ehemaligen UdSSR liegen.

GENERAL PART

Judging by the world experience, most accidents to the power projects in particular high dams are caused by geodynamic processes and phenomena.

Any project, its foundation and geological environ treated as an integral techno-natural system in which each element interacts with the other elements and exerts influence on them, may be endangered by natural, endo- and exogene geodynamic processes, as well as by technogene processes or by technogene-induced processes.

Some notion about the nature of this hazard can be derived from Table 1 which sums up geodynamic processes of various origin and their manifestations critical for the power projects. It is evident that seismic processes resulting in heavy earthquakes are one of the highest hazards for the safety of power projects especially for hydro developments with high dams. Only over last 30–40 years serious accidents and damages resulting from seismic dams: Ponteba (h = 10 m) in Algeria, Canyon del Pato (h = 20 m) in Peru, Hsinfengiciang (h = 105 m) in China, Koyna (h = 103 m) in India, Pacoima (h =113 m) in the USA, Sefidrud (h = 106 m) in Iran; and earthfill dams: Hebgen (h = 35 m), Lower San Fernando (h = 43 m), Upper San Fernando (h = 25m), Los Angeles (h = 40 m) in the USA, El Infiernillo (h = 143 m) and La Villita (h =.60 m) in Mexico, Surgu (h = 57 m) in Turkey: a number of small tail storage dams in Chile and some others.

The Ponteba, Canon del Pato, Lower San Fernando have been destroyed, damages caused to the Hsinfengkiang, Koyna, Upper San Fernando dams could have catastrophic consequences should the upstream levels during earthquakes have been close to the maximum ones.

The most dramatic incidents on the territory of the former USSR caused by earthquakes took place at hydraulic structures in Armenia located near the Spitak earthquake epicenter and at the Chir-Yurt dam in Daghestan.

The catastrophic earthquake of 07.12.88 at Spitak of 10.5 intensity. in epicenter (M = 7) caused dramatic damages and 25000 losses of life. The largest damages were recorded at hydraulic structures occurring in the zone of 7–8 intensity shakings: Karnout dam (h = 35 m)

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