ABSTRACT:

The paper addresses problems associated with tunneling in poor ground under high overburden. Prediction of amount of convergence, estimation of creeping effects, and selection of appropriate support are extremely challenging tasks for the tunneling engineer. While conventional excavation methods offer a certain flexibility to cope with heterogeneous conditions, TBM's still have to be improved to successfully master fault zones in Alpine tunnels. Emphasis in this paper is put to recent developments in short term prediction of rock mass behavior, prediction of tunnel closure, and ductile supports.

RÉSUMÉ:

Le present rapport etudie les problemes qui se posent lors la construction de tunnels dans la roche poussante. Le prognostic des deformations du tunnel, I'evaluation correcte des phenomenes de fluage ainsi que Ie choix des moyens convenables de soutenment representent une tache importante pour l'ingenieur, Tandisque les methodes conventionnelles de construction de tunnels s'adaptent de maniere passablement flexible aux conditions locales, on a encore besoin de beaucoup d'ameliorations sur le plan TBM afin de render possible la bonne traversee de zones de faille.Ce rapport entre surtout dans les evolutions recentes dans les domaines du prognostic à court terme du comportement de la roche, du prognostic des convergences et des type deformables de soutenement definitif.

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG:

Der Beitrag beschaftigt sich mit den Problemen, welche beim Tunnelbau im druckhaften Gebirge auftreten. Die Vorhersage der Tunnelverformung, die richtige Einschatzung von Kriecheffekten, sowie die Auswahl der entsprechenden Stuetzmittel stellen eine große Herausforderung fuer den Tunnelbauingenieur dar. Wahrend konventionelle Tunnelbaumethoden einigermaßen flexibel an die lokalen Verhaltnisse angepaßt werden können, sind auf dem Gebiet der Tunnelbohrmaschinen noch wesentliche Verbesserungen nötig, urn das erfolgreiche Durchörtern von Störungszonenzu ermöglichen. Im Beitrag wird insbesondere auf juengste Entwicklungen auf dem Gebiet der Kurzzeitprognose des Gebirgsverhaltens, der Voraussage von Konvergenzen und verformbaren Ausbautypen emgegangen.

INTRODUCTION

When tunneling in squeezing rock a number of problems have to be dealt with. The main problems are: instability at the face, failing of supports due to high loads, underprofiles caused by excessive deformation, extreme heterogeneity in the rock mass itself, ground water, and long term creeping processes and swelling.

Due to the geological complexity of fault zones different failure modes of the rock mass have to be expected at different locations. Thus an universally applicable tunneling method suitable for all types of squeezing rock cannot exist. Methods applied have to be adjusted to the local geological situation and stress field.

Due to the higher flexibility up to now conventional tunneling methods are still preferred to TBM operation in squeezing ground conditions.

CONVENTIONAL TUNNELING METHODS
Full face versus sequential excavation

With conventional tunneling (drill & blast, roadheader, excavator) full face and sequential excavation methods are used. Strong regional preferences for one or the other of the methods can be observed. While for example in Italy full face excavation is preferred in Austria and many other countries sequential excavation methods are applied for bigger tunnels. A number of problems is associated with the full face approach.

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