The major of Swiss territory is occupied by mountains. Natural events as floods, debris flows, landslides, rockfalls, and avalanches regularly threaten the safety of people and properties. On the one hand, extreme weather events cause great damages, on the other hand, the enhancement of territory's exploitation increases the risk. The Swiss Government makes many efforts to deal with the prevention of natural hazards, especially through measures of land management. As stated by federal law, Swiss cantons are obliged to establish hazard maps and to take the risk into account in the land management. Hazard maps are based on the hazard matrix, whose abscissa and ordinate are probability and intensity of the event on site. This project focuses on rockfalls. It consists of three main parts: the creation of a database to collect data on site, the creation of a catalog with all type of measures, and the development of a methodology for the analysis of the effectiveness of protective measures. The creation of the database allows us to collect information: about the site, about protective structures implemented on it, and about failures. With many multiple choice fields and few free text fields, it can collect data in a homogeneous way, without redundancy. The catalog has to be a tool that gives a basis to make decisions. It collects information about all types of protective measures implemented on Canton Vaud's territory or available on the Swiss market. Free text fields allow for data storage of specifics, to give a complete view of structure's characteristics and potentials. Methodology consists of four steps. The core of the procedure is the structure's evaluation following a score system; it allows for calculation of reduction factors that have to be applied to intensity and probability parameters of the structure. Then it is necessary to convert the reduced structure's intensity value into a residual site's intensity value. Although the first step enables us to choose suitable measure for a specific site, it is not necessary to perform it. Second step allows us to evaluate structures under scenario 0, where structures are in best conditions. Third step allows us to evaluate structures under six scenarios of possible failings. Fourth step allows us to convert structure's reduced intensity into event's residual intensity and to establish the new point on hazard matrix. While the procedure has already been defined, details of score system and conversion have to be developed during the second phase of the project.
Methodology for Analyzing the Effects of Protective Measures for Falling Blocks in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland
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Grisanti, C., and Prina Howald. "Methodology for Analyzing the Effects of Protective Measures for Falling Blocks in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland." Paper presented at the 13th ISRM International Congress of Rock Mechanics, Montreal, Canada, May 2015.
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