Displacement of rock mass around a tunnel opening varies according to the rock mass properties, insitu stress conditions and applied support in the tunnel. Such displacement is also altered by presence of bands of rock mass that differ in properties. This paper focuses on the deformation behavior of rock mass around tunnel openings at four tunnel sections in Kaligandaki headrace tunnel where extensive instrumentation was done. Based on the actually measured tunnel displacement records and actually measured support pressure; back analysis has been done to estimate rock mass properties and insitu stresses. Numerical analysis has been done to analyze and assess the deformation behavior of the rock mass around the tunnel sections.


Instrumentation and monitoring of tunnel convergences have significant importance in evaluation of tunnel stability. One of the key aspects of monitored data is that early convergences can be used in estimation of long term convergence. In addition, these data can also be used in evaluation of rock mass parameters and in-situ stresses around the tunnel. Convergence around a tunnel periphery may vary according to rock mass quality. Presence of bands of different rock mass may hinder the displacement pattern in the tunnel. Particularly, displacement characteristic of tunnel periphery in schistose, foliated and deformed rock mass is altered by presence of bands of comparatively stronger rock mass, e.g., quartz veins or presence of shear seams or faults. Similar observations were also recorded in monitored tunnel sections in Kaligandaki headrace tunnel, located in the Nepal Himalayas. Extensive monitoring was done by installing multiple point borehole extensometers (MPBX) at three different locations of the tunnel periphery at four different tunnel sections. In addition, convergence measurements by tape extensometers and installation of pressure cells to record support pressures were also carried out at each of the tunnel sections. Observations showed that the tunnel convergences varied according to rock mass quality, in-situ stress and effective support pressure.

Rock mass parameters and stresses have significant role in the extent of tunnel deformation, but these parameters are often unknown or difficult to predict. Back analysis based on actual tunnel displacement records and known support pressure is believed to be an important method in such endeavor. This paper performs back analysis to evaluate rock mass parameters and discusses correlation of rock mass behavior with tunnel deformation and applied support. For this purpose, the rock mass parameters are estimated from actual tunnel displacement records, mapped rock mass quality records and laboratory tested data. Then, numerical modelling is conducted to correlate post peak behavior of the rock mass with actual tunnel displacement.

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