This paper presents an overview of the major landslide hazards in open pit mines in China, the currently used landslide control and monitoring techniques, and development of a new slope control technique incorporating the reinforcement, sliding force monitoring, remote sensing and forecasting in one system in order to constrain the displacement of the sliding blocks in the landslide to minimized the influenced area and provide precise warnings timely for the imminent landslides. For implementation of the new technique, a novel rock cable with large deformation and high resistance (also known as HE cable) was developed, which can elongate as long as 2m. At the same time, the necessary and sufficient condition for initiating a landslide and energy balance equations are formulated. Based on the proposed mathematical models and Beidou satellite system, the software and data transmission hardware for remote sensing and forecasting were developed the new landslide control technique has been applied successfully in 245 landslide sites in 12 provinces across China. In this article, two practical application cases in the open pit mines are reported.
China is one of the countries in the world with the most widely distributed landslides and suffering the heaviest damage. According to the incomplete statistics, landslide hazards have caused death of hundreds of people and direct economic losses of several hundred million RMB each year. The landslide hazards have a great impact on the life and property safety of the people, safety of the infrastructure, as well as the social stability. Thus development of new techniques for forecasting and prediction of the landslides is imperative and of great importance. In general, the forecasting and prediction of the landslides consists of three major aspects, i.e. sliding time forecasting, landslide activity intensity forecasting and landslide hazard degree forecasting. Since a considerable part of the landslide-suspected area are adjacent to the residential areas or important infrastructures, development of the advanced landslide control and monitoring techniques to cope with the sliding time forecasting problem is more important.
Over the past one hundred years, the most widely used slope monitoring techniques are based on displacement monitoring (Xu, et al. 2007; Toshitaka, 1998). In the early days owing to the limitation of the technology and equipment, the ground surface displacement and underground water level change were inspected mainly by man power for inferring the possibility of a landslide. In recent several decades, more and more ground surface displacement monitoring devices were brought to the market, such as the automatic total station, theodolite, digital level, borehole inclinometer and GPS based instruments, etc. Based on these modern techniques, some advanced instruments have been developed and applied to the landslide monitoring, for example, the "landslides early warning monitoring system" (Leonardo, et al. 2002), the "In-SAR" technique (Reevea, et al. 2000), the GPS and satellite geodetic survey based technique (Reevea, et al. 2000), and real-time telemetry technology (Xu, et al. 2007). These monitoring approaches have made significant contributions to the landslide disaster monitoring and forecasting. The major limitations for the ground surface displacement monitoring techniques are lie in the inconsistence between the displacement in ground surface and that in the sliding surface for the sliding mass, resulting in low degree of forecasting accuracy.