Effect of Climate on LNG Technology Selection
- Mark Roberts (Air Products and Chemicals Inc.) | William Kennington (Air Products and Chemicals Inc.) | Annemarie Weist (Air Products and Chemicals Inc.)
- Document ID
- World Petroleum Congress
- 21st World Petroleum Congress, 15-19 June, Moscow, Russia
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2014. World Petroleum Council
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 107 since 2007
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Natural Gas Liquefaction plants are being considered for a wider range of climates, including arctic environments.
This paper compares several liquefaction processes including Propane Precooled Mixed Refrigerant (C3MR) and Dual Mixed Refrigerant (DMR) cycles, focusing on the differences in performance in cold climates, and sensitivity to both seasonal and diurnal temperature variations. The interaction between the choice of cooling medium (air or water) and liquefaction cycle is also explored, and various rotating equipment options, including electric motor drive, aeroderivative gas turbines and refrigerant compressor arrangements are examined. Case studies are included to describe practical solutions. The complex interplay of all these factors and their relation to project objectives is described in order to provide a basic understanding of the considerations needed to select the optimum liquefaction cycle, refrigeration driver type, and machinery configuration for a specific opportunity.
Historically, almost all baseload LNG facilities have been either in tropical or desert regions of the world, with only two projects having been completed in arctic climates in the past decade: Snøhvit [1,2] and Sakhalin Island . The world-wide demand for natural gas is increasing rapidly, and to meet this need, the LNG industry is expanding into new natural gas sources. Many large natural gas fields are in arctic or sub-arctic1 regions. Developing projects for arctic climates and constructing plants in those regions present many new challenges. This paper focuses how to optimally design the liquefaction process for arctic climates. This paper will address only the process implications for the liquefaction area. Outside the paper’s scope are construction, shipping, and human factors affected by extreme cold and very long and short daylight periods.
What makes the arctic different?
The obvious answer is that the ambient temperatures are much colder. However, it is worth a closer look at the specific weather data to understand what the differences are and to quantify them. For this analysis, three types of climates are considered: desert, tropical, and arctic.
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