Analysis of a Drained Rock Volume: An Eagle Ford Example
- Kevin Raterman (ConocoPhillips) | Yongshe Liu (ConocoPhillips) | Logan Warren (ConocoPhillips)
- Document ID
- Unconventional Resources Technology Conference
- SPE/AAPG/SEG Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, 22-24 July, Denver, Colorado, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2019. Unconventional Resources Technology Conference
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- 1,462 since 2007
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This paper is a companion to URTeC 2670034, “Sampling a Stimulated Rock Volume: An Eagle Ford Example.” That paper detailed the nature of the stimulated rock volume adjacent to a hydraulically fractured horizontal well. It demonstrated that hydraulic fractures are far reaching and abundant but quite variably distributed spatially; the presence of well propped fractures beyond 100 feet of the stimulated well appeared negligible.
The present paper reconciles the production performance of the central pilot well with far-field pressure monitor data to characterize the drained rock volume (DRV). Central to the stimulated reservoir description is the integration of data from core, image logs, proppant tracer, distributed temperature sensing (DTS), distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) and pressure which shows that not all hydraulic fractures are created equal. Principal and secondary hydraulic fractures are identified based on the correlation between image log interpreted fracture aperture and the far-field pressure data. Analysis of distributed temperature data during the completion and warm back period is furthermore used to infer fracture connectivity to the well. A highly fractured near well region between clusters is concluded. A novel data-driven reservoir model is constructed wherein the key interpretations are consistently integrated. Production, bottom hole pressure, and far-field pressure data from 14 pressure monitoring stations are history matched. A heterogeneous drained rock volume is predicted. The integrated model is compared to common production history matched planar fracture models to assess the potential impacts on cluster spacing, well spacing, and well stacking decisions.
In 2017 ConocoPhillips reported (Raterman, et al., 2018) on a pilot conducted in the Eagle Ford (EF) shale that was internally referred to as the “SRV pilot”. The original paper dealt primarily with the execution of the pilot and the attendant description of hydraulic and natural fractures within the Stimulated Rock Volume. The observations were derived from multiple core and image logs acquired in a series of five drill through wells sampling a total of 7700 feet proximal to a stimulated producer within the EF Formation. Notable conclusions regarding hydraulic fractures included the following.
- Hydraulic fractures are numerous and broadly subparallel. There are many more fractures than perforation clusters.
- In the piloted area, the hydraulic fracture density decreases above and laterally away from the producer. The SRV is likely broader than tall, some fractures extending as far as 1500 feet.
- Fracture deflection, offset and branching at bedding surfaces and other naturally occurring heterogeneities appears to significantly promote fracture complexity.
- At the locations sampled, from as near as 60 to as far as 400 feet from the producer, evidence for well propped fractures is sparse.
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