Application of Cemented Multi-Entry Ball-Activated Frac Sleeves in Multistage Stimulation: Fracture Modeling and Production Prediction
- Suat Bagci (Baker Hughes) | Sergey Stolyarov (Baker Hughes) | Ricardo Gomez (Baker Hughes) | Junjie Yang (Baker Hughes) | Christopher Elliott (Baker Hughes)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, 17-19 November, Virtual
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2020. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.1.3 Completion Equipment, 5.6.9 Production Forecasting, 4.1 Processing Systems and Design, 2.10 Well Integrity, 2.4 Hydraulic Fracturing, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 4 Facilities Design, Construction and Operation, 5.6 Formation Evaluation & Management, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 2.2 Installation and Completion Operations, 2 Well completion, 3 Production and Well Operations, 2.2.2 Perforating
- Ball-Activated Frac Sleeve, Multistage Stimulation, Fracture Modeling, Multi-Entry, Production Prediction
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Plug and Perf (PnP) completions have been the most widely used multistage hydraulic fracturing methods in unconventional wells. In a PnP completion, isolation between stages is achieved by setting frac plugs inside the horizontal liner. The number of perforation clusters and perforation holes are designed using limited entry perforating techniques.
While PnP is a proven method, there are also some downsides, particularly when considering the inability to pump plugs due to changes in casing integrity and casing deformation occurring in 20-30% of horizontal wells. Casing damage has been increasingly recognized as a challenge to well integrity in active or child wells during multistage hydraulic fracturing. Casing deformation and reduction in casing inside diameter (ID) prevent the use of PnP operations due to frac plugs being unable to pass through deformed casing.
Cemented multi-entry ball-activated fracturing sleeves (ME-BAFS) allow users to imitate the limited entry effect of PnP completions while eliminating the need to deploy large OD frac plugs for each stage. The multiple entry points are activated using various-sized frac balls dropped from the surface as the stimulation treatment is pumped, eliminating the need to rig up and rig down between stages. After fracturing is complete, the frac balls either dissolve or are flowed to surface allowing production to begin immediately eliminating through-tubing intervention. The multi-entry ball-activated fracturing sleeves use graduated balls and ball seats to open as many as five sleeves per stage with a single frac ball for increased efficiency. Number of clusters and entry points are calculated based on limited entry techniques similar to PnP.
Within this study, two limited entry techniques, PnP and multi-entry sleeve systems, are evaluated using commercial fracture modeling software, and well production modeling to compare the steady-state production between PnP and multi-entry ball-activated fracturing sleeves. Hydraulic fracture modeling is also used to evaluate limited entry perforation design, perf erosion, stress shadowing, and fracture propagation.
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