Insights on Trigger Mechanisms of Two Large Hydraulic Fracturing-Induced Earthquakes and Sensitivity Analysis
- Gang Hui (University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada) | Shengnan Chen (University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada) | Fei Gu (PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing, China)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Canada Unconventional Resources Conference, 29 September - 2 October, Virtual
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2020. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 3 Production and Well Operations, 2.4 Hydraulic Fracturing, 2 Well completion, 0.2.2 Geomechanics, 7.2.1 Risk, Uncertainty and Risk Assessment, 7.2 Risk Management and Decision-Making, 7 Management and Information, 0.2 Wellbore Design
- Coupled flow-geomechanics, Induced seismicity, Fault reactivation, Coulomb Failure Stress, Hydraulic fracturing
- 12 in the last 30 days
- 63 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
Two earthquakes with the moment magnitude of 3.9 and 4.1 occurred in January 2015 and January 2016 near the Crooked Lake region, Alberta. Both earthquakes were attributed to the hydraulic fracturing operations of three horizontal wells located at the same well-pad. The underlying mechanisms of both earthquakes are still unclear and required to be investigated to mitigate risks of future seismicity in this region. In this study, the coupled simulations of the fluid flow and geomechanics were conducted to characterize the temporal and spatial evolution of pore pressure diffusion and stress perturbation during and after hydraulic fracturing operations. The Coulomb Failure Stress along the pre-existing fault near the horizontal wells were then calculated to study the reactivation of the fault. Sensitivity analysis was finally conducted to understand the effects of the fault's orientation, injection layer permeability, and distance between the fault and hydraulic fractures on the induced seismicity. The results showed that one North-South-oriented fault was activated twice after the sequential fracturing operations of three horizontal wells in 2015 and 2016. The Mw 3.9 earthquake was triggered by the stress and pore pressure changes that activated the fault in the basement. The relatively long-time interval between the stimulation and the induced earthquake was attributed to the low permeability and geomechanics property from the injection layer to the fault. The subsequent Mw 4.1 event was triggered by the direct connection between the hydraulic fractures, natural fractures, and the fault. Sensitivity analysis has suggested that the activation of faults were susceptible to the proximity between stimulated well and seismogenic faults, low permeability of the injection layer, and the low angle between the fault strike and the maximum horizontal stress.
|File Size||916 KB||Number of Pages||12|
Adams, J.J. and Eccles, D.R. 2003. Controls on fluid flow systems in northern Alberta as related to MVT mineralization: a contribution to the carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn (MVT) targeted geoscience initiative; Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, EUB/AGS Geo-Note 2002-21, 62. http://ags.aer.ca/document/GEO/GEO_2002_21.pdf.
Alberta Shale Report. 2012. Shale- and Siltstone-Hosted Hydrocarbon Resources of Alberta, 2012-06. https://ags.aer.ca/document/OFR/OFR_2012_06.pdf.
Atkinson, G. M., D. W. Eaton, H. Ghofrani, D. Walker, B. Cheadle, R. Schultz, ., 2016. Hydraulic fracturing and seismicity in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Seismological Research Letter 87(3): 631-647. https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/ssa/srl/article/87/3/631/315665/Hydraulic-Fracturing-and-Seismicity-in-the-Western.
Bao, X. and D. W. Eaton. 2016. Fault activation by hydraulic fracturing in western Canada. Science 354(6318):1406-1409 https://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6318/1406.
Catalli, F., Meier, M.A., and Wiemer, S. 2013. The role of Coulomb stress changes for injection-induced seismicity: The Basel enhanced geothermal system. Geophysical Research Letter 40(1): 72-77. https://scits.stanford.edu/sites/g/files/sbiybj13751/f/grl50068.pdf.
Eaton, D. W., N. Igonin, A. Poulin, R. Weir, H. Zhang, S. Pellegrino and G. Rodriguez. 2018. Induced seismicity characterization during hydraulic fracture monitoring with a shallow-wellbore geophone array and broadband sensors. Seismological Research Letter 89(5): 1641-1651. https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/ssa/srl/article/89/5/1641/543218/induced-seismicity-characterization-during
Ellsworth, William. 2013. Injection-Induced Earthquakes. Science 341(6142): 1225942. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/sci/341/6142/1225942.full.pdf.
Eyre, T. S., D. W. Eaton, M. Zecevic, D. D'Amico, and D. Kolos. 2019. Microseismicity reveals fault activation before Mw 4.1 hydraulic fracturing induced earthquake. Geophysical Journal International, 218(1): 534-546. https://academic.oup.com/gji/article/218/1/534/5432359
Frohlich, C., C. Hayward, B. Stump, and E. Potter. 2011. The Dallas-Fort Worth earthquake sequence: October 2008 through May 2009. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 101(1): 327-340. https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/ssa/bssa/article/101/1/327/349574/The-Dallas-Fort-Worth-Earthquake-Sequence-October
Healy, J., W. Rubey, D Griggs, and C. Raleigh. 1968. The Denver earthquakes, Science 161(3848):1301-1310 https://scits.stanford.edu/sites/g/files/sbiybj13751/f/healy_rubey_griggs_raleigh_1968_0.pdf
Hui, G., Chen, S., Chen, Z., Gu, F., (2020). An integrated approach to characterize hydraulic fracturing-induced seismicity in shale reservoirs, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 196(2021),107624 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2020.107624.
King, G.C.P., Devès, M. 2015. Fault interaction, earthquake stress changes, and the evolution of seismicity. Treatise on Geophysics, second ed. 4:243-272. https://www.sciencedirect.com/referencework/9780444538031/treatise-on-geophysics
Natural Resources Canada. Earthquake Reports for 2018-11-29. 2018. http://earthquakescanada.nrcan.gc.ca/recent/2018/20181130.0127/index-en.php
Rubinstein, Justin & Mahani, Alireza. 2015. Myths and Facts on Wastewater Injection, Hydraulic Fracturing, Enhanced Oil Recovery, and Induced Seismicity. Seismological Research Letters 86(4): 1060-1067. https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/ssa/srl/article/86/4/1060/315450/myths-and-facts-on-wastewater-injection-hydraulic
Slota-Valim, M. 2015. Static and dynamic elastic properties, the cause of the difference and conversion methods-case study. Nafta-Gaz 71:816-826. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9e83/9ac05b5ea3fa73e396e327871959e2867316.pdf
Soltanzadeh, Mehrdad & Hawkes, Chris & McLellan, Patrick & Smith, S.A. 2009. Poroelastic Modelling of Production and Injection-Induced Stress Changes in a Pinnacle Reef. http://www.geogroup.utoronto.ca/wp-content/uploads/rockeng09/Session6/4182%20PAPER.pdf
Stiros, S. and Kontogianni, V. 2009. Mean deformation tensor and mean deformation ellipse of an excavated tunnel section. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 46(8):1306-1314. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1365160909000422?via%3Dihub
Wang R., Yu J. G., Ryan S., Miao Z., Ahyi K. 2016. Source characteristics and geological implications of the January 2016 induced earthquake swarm near Crooked Lake, Alberta. Geophysical Journal International 210(2): 979–988. https://academic.oup.com/gji/article/210/2/979/3855472
M. Weingarten, S. Ge, JW Godt, BA Bekins, J.L. Rubinstein. 2015. High-rate injection is associated with the increase in US mid-continent seismicity. Science 348 (6241):1336-1340.https://science.sciencemag.org/content/348/6241/1336
Zhang, H., Eaton, D. W., Li, G., Liu, Y., and Harrington, R. M. 2016. Discriminating induced seismicity from natural earthquakes using moment tensors and source spectra. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 121(2): 972-993. https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/2015JB012603
Zhang, H., Eaton, D. W., Rodriguez, G., Jia, S. Q. 2019. Source-Mechanism Analysis and Stress Inversion for Hydraulic-Fracturing-Induced Event Sequences near Fox Creek, Alberta. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 109(2):636-651. https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/ssa/bssa/article/109/2/636/569194/Source-Mechanism-Analysis-and-Stress-Inversion-for
Zoback, M. 2007. Reservoir Geomechanics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/reservoir-geomechanics/71717D4521278CE16D1DED0476ACEDBE