Gas injection is used as an improved recovery mechanism to provide reservoir pressure maintenance, oil swelling and sweeping. This mechanism offers a high microscopic recovery comparing to water injection thanks to a lower residual oil saturation to gas. However, its macroscopic recovery tends in general to be smaller due to a lower sweep efficiency - a direct consequence of high gas to oil mobility ratio. The case of Akpo Z represents a success story where gas injection led to a significant increase in the condensate ultimate recovery higher than 70%, as a result of the combination of both high microscopic and macroscopic recoveries. Akpo Z is a light condensate-bearing turbidite reservoir deep offshore Nigeria and has been developed using two gas injectors located at the crest of the structure with four oil producers at the flanks. The key success factors of gas injection in Akpo Z are linked both to a favorable subsurface environment, in particular, a large structure, good horizontal connectivity and a near critical light fluid, but also to appropriate reservoir development choices. These elements are detailed in this paper. This paper also shows the challenges linked to daily reservoir management and monitoring from an operator point of view, in particular, the impact of gas injection availability on condensate production shortfalls and the uncertainties linked to gas production and injection metering. Throughout the field life, several monitoring tools such as Intelligent Well Completion (IWC) and 4D seismic have been leveraged to take appropriate reservoir management decisions that led to a delay in gas and water breakthrough and sustain field condensate potential.
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B. Habermann - SPE-1540-G, The efficiency of Mischible Displacement as a Function of Mobility Ratio.
I. Chaperon - SPE -15374-MS, Theoretical Study of Coning Toward Horizontal and Vertical Wells in Anisotropic Formations: Subcritical and Critical Rates.
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