Successful Application of a Salt Tolerant High Viscous Friction Reducer Technology: Past and Present
- Harvey Quintero (ChemTerra Innovation) | Grant Farion (Trican Well Service LTD.) | David Gardener (ChemTerra Innovation) | Bill O'Neil (ChemTerra Innovation) | Robert Hawkes (Trican Well Service LTD.) | Chuan Wang (ChemTerra Innovation) | Pablo Cisternas (American Air Liquide) | Antoine Pruvot (American Air Liquide) | James McAndrew (American Air Liquide) | Leo Tsuber (Badger Mining Corporation)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 30 September - 2 October, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2019. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Proppant, Suspension, Viscous, Salt Tolerant, Friction Reducer
- 5 in the last 30 days
- 389 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
This study aims to demonstrate the true benefit of an innovative salt tolerant high viscosity friction reducer (HVFR) that excels at promoting extended proppant suspension and vertical distribution into the fracture when it is used as a base fluid for the Capillary Bridge Slurry (CBS) and other conventional fracturing fluid systems in combination with nitrogen.
The completion of super-lateral wells now being drilled in tight oil and gas shales in North America, with record lengths close to 4 miles, demand for greater carrying capability of low viscosity (slickwater) fracturing fluids, where significant sand settling can occur before the proppant even reaches the fractures. This has sparked recent interest in the development and application of salt tolerant polyacrylamide-based friction reducers, referred to as High Viscous Friction Reducers (HVFR). The downfall of these first generation HVFR's is the lack of compatibility with high salinity brines such as recycled and flowback water, and diminished ability to reduce friction pressure during hydraulic fracturing treatments when compared to industry standard FR's.
Herein, we report the field application of a unique salt tolerant HVFR (HVFR-ST), that consistently provides higher viscosity values (corresponding industry standard HVFR loading comparison) when tested in brines, without sacrificing friction reduction effectiveness. Additionally, a new concept of fracturing fluid referred to as Capillary Bridge Slurry (CBS) has been successfully implemented in North America, where through a surface modification to the proppant, the addition of a gas phase such as N2, and the use of a polyacrylamide-based friction reducer, the proppant becomes part of the fluid structure and is no longer the burden to be carried. The combination of HVFR's and the surface modified proppant can effectively combat the issues faced with proppant transport in long laterals.
This paper will highlight the results on the analysis of the governing proppant transport mechanisms (suspended and bed) of CBS system formulated with HVFR-ST, in the presence of nitrogen (N2), where no detrimental effect in the average distance traveled of the sand particle in the Proppant Transport Test Bench (PTTB) was observed when the brine concentration of the base fluid was increased from 1% to 5% in comparison to industry standard HVFR (HVFR-FW).
Field production data on wells stimulated with CBS show a significant upside (~ 50%) in liquid hydrocarbon production than offsetting wells over a ~ one year period of time.
Friction loop data carried out at 45 L/min (11.89 gals/min) flow rate in an internal diameter pipe of 0.305" shows a reduction on friction pressure in excess of 70%, when HVFR was tested in 5% API brine (4% (w/v) NaCl and 1% (w/v) CaCl2·2H2O) at loadings as low as 0.1%. Furthermore, dynamic measurements within the viscoelastic regime/behavior of the HVFR at different loadings in the oscillatory viscometer will provide learnings on the elasticity-proppant transport relationship of the different fracturing fluid systems.
Through the use of laboratory testing and field study cases, this paper will illustrate the true benefits on the use of salt tolerant HVFR's as a base fluid with the increasing demand of re-cycled and flowback water use in fracturing fluid systems.
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||23|
Quintero, H., Mattucci, M., Hawkes, R., Zhang, K. and O'Neil, B., Trican Well Service LTD. 2018. "Nano-Particle Surfactant in Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids for Enhanced Post Frac Oil Recovery" Presented at the SPE Canada Unconventional Resources Conference, Clagary, Alberta, Canada, 13 – 14 March. SPE-189780-MS.
Wood, W. D., Brannon, H. D., Rickards, A.R., Stephenson, C., BJ Services Company. 2003. "Ultra-Lightweight Proppant Development Yields Exciting New Opportunities in Hydraulic Fracturing Design". Presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A., 5 – 8 October. SPE-84309.
Motiee, M., Maxwell, J., Ward, B., Gradl, C., McKimmy, M., Hess Corporation; Meeheib, J., Calfrac Well Services. 2016. "High Concentration Polyacrylamide-Based Friction Reducer Used as a Direct Substitute for Guar-Based Borate Crosslinked Fluid in Fracturing Operations". Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, U.S.A., 9 – 11 February. SPE-179154-MS.
Van Domelen, M., Cutrer, W., Downhole Chemical Solutions; Collins, S., Earthstone Energy Inc.; Ruegamer, M., Kingsfield Consulting. 2017. "Applications of Viscosity-Building Friction Reducers as Fracturing Fluids". Presented at the SPE Oklahoma City Oil and Gas Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, U.S.A., 27 – 31 March. SPE-185084-MS.
Pruvot, A., McAndrew, J., Cisternas, P., Cheniwchan, D., Air Liquide, R&D, Quintero, H., Chuanzhong, C., O'Neil, B., ChemTerra Innovation 2019. "Evaluation of Hydrophobic Proppant Transport by Aqueous Energized Fluids, Impact of Gas Volume Fraction and Proppant Size: A Holistic Approach". Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, San Jose, California, USA, 23 – 26 April. SPE-195279-MS
Xu, L., Lord, P., He, K., Riley, H., Koons, J., and Wauters, T., Multi-Chem, Weiman, S., EQT 2017. "Case Study: A Two Part Salt-Tolerant Friction Reducer System Enables the Reuse of Produced Water in Hydraulic Fracturing" Presented at The International Conference on Oilfield Chemistry, Montgomery, Texas, 3 – 5 April. SPE-1845048-MS.