Mechanics & Effectiveness of Different Types of Diversion in Horizontal Well Fracturing
- Ali Daneshy (Daneshy Consultants Int'l)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 30 September - 2 October, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2019. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Fluid diversion in fracturing, Hydraulic Fracturing, re-fracturing, Horizontal Wells
- 31 in the last 30 days
- 309 since 2007
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Use of diverters for altering fluid distribution among created hydraulic fractures in horizontal wells has gained popularity in recent years, both for initial and re-fracturing treatments. Aims in initial fracturing treatments have included creating more uniform distribution of slurry within the created fractures, increasing stage efficiency by reducing the number of pumping stages while increasing the number of clusters per stage, increasing the number of fractures created in openhole completions, reducing interactions between fractures in adjacent horizontal wells, etc. In re-fracturing treatments, a popular application is for altering fluid distribution in wells re-treated without isolation between stages (Pump & Pray/Bullheading) with the intent of increasing the number of re-activated fractures and initiating new fractures through added perforations.
Engineering analysis of the mechanics of fluid diversion has not received the same degree of attention as its use. The reported discussions are often limited in their scope, two-dimensional in structure, and somewhat speculative in their conclusions.
This paper divides the targets of diversion into three categories; at the wellbore/perfs, near wellbore, and deeper inside the fracture. It divides the types of diverters into three categories, mechanical, solid particulate (including proppants), and chemical. The applications are divided into two categories, initial and re-fracturing, together with highlighting their differences and requirements for successful diversion. The paper discusses how presence of proppant changes the fluid distribution in favor of more conductive perforations. It considers the fracture as a three-dimensional structure, extending on both sides of the wellbore. It describes how different diverting agents cause fluid redistribution between the fractures, and the important role of proppant in some applications. It shows that as the target of fluid diversion moves away from the wellbore the chances of its success become smaller and more unpredictable, while also the time before effective diversion takes place becomes longer.
Comprehensive understanding of the mechanics of fluid diversion helps in the selection of the type of diverter and how best to deploy it for achieving specific objectives and results.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||13|
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