Is Steamflooding a Form of Low Salinity Waterflooding?
- Hasan N. Al-Saedi (Missouri University of Science and Technology/ Missan Oil Company) | Waleed Al-Bazzaz (Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research) | Ralph E. Flori (Missouri University of Science and Technology)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, 18-21 March, Manama, Bahrain
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2019. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.5.3 Scaling Methods, 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 5.7 Reserves Evaluation, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 5.4 Improved and Enhanced Recovery, 5.4.6 Thermal Methods, 5.4 Improved and Enhanced Recovery, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics
- Hybrid EOR Processes, Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery, Steam Flooding, Low Salinity Water Flooding
- 17 in the last 30 days
- 78 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 8.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 25.00|
Previously, Al-Saedi and Flori et al. 2018d proposed a novel steam-low salinity EOR technique called low salinity-alternating-steam flooding (LSASF) into a reservoir core with a high reservoir temperature. Naturally, if a reservoir's temperature is very low, then oil is heavy. Using thermal EOR techniques in such a low-temperature reservoir resulted in considerable heat loss. In this study, we investigate the steam lifespan from the injector to the producer in order to check if the injected steam is still active throughout the flooding process or if it will condense because of the heat loss. The Bartlesville Sandstone Reservoir, as with other heavy oil reservoirs, is a low temperature (23°C) shallow reservoir containing heavy oil (600 cP). We believe that steam injected into various cores from the Bartlesville Sandstone Reservoir will condense due to the low reservoir temperature. The question is whether or not this condensed steam behave similarly to low salinity (LS) waterflooding.
First, the steam was injected into the oil-free core to determice when the steam condensed and what temperature it condensed at by using a multi-port model to check if the injected steam turned into water.
Several Bartlesville Sandstone Reservoir cores were initially flooded with formation water (FW), and then were flooded with different scenarios of steam and LS water. The temperatures of the inlet, the core, and the outlet were recorded. The effluent was collected from different ports out of the cores and different producer positions in order to follow up the steam position inside the core.
Core contact angle measurements were conducted throughout the flooded cores to determine the wettability alteration between steam and condensed steam (LS water) with the rock.
This study shows that when steam turned into LS water, the sandstone core wettability was altered towards being more water-wet. The condensed steam is considered to be hot LS water, which can reduce oil viscosity and alter the wettability at the same time.
These results were for short length cores. If these results are upscaled up to the oil reservoir scale, then the steam will still be turned into LS cold water (LSCW) as will be illustrated in the analytical model (We are still working on the analytical model). The LSCW will work as a wettability modifier only without reducing the oil viscosity. LSCW is not favorable for use in heavy oil reservoirs because the sweep efficiency is very low due to density differences unless the LS water chemistry is manipulated; however, contact angle measurements showed that the LSCW altered the sandstone wettability towards the neutral wet condition.
|File Size||991 KB||Number of Pages||12|
Akkutlu, I. Y., & Yortsos, Y. C. (2002, January 1). The Effect of Heterogeneity on In-situ Combustion: The Propagation of Combustion Fronts in Layered Porous Media. Society of Petroleum Engineers. https://doi.org/10.2118/75128-MS
Al-Saedi, Hasan, N. and R. E. Flori (2018f). Enhanced oil recovery of low salinity water flooding in sandstone and the role of clay. Petroleum Exploration and Development 45(5): 927–931. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1876-3804(18)30096-X
Al-Saedi, Hasan, N., Flori, R. & Al-Jaberi, S. (2018e). Eliminate the role of clay in sandstone: EOR low salinity water flooding J Petrol Explor Prod Technol. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13202-018-0548-y
Al-Saedi, Hasan, N., Flori, R. E., Alkhamis, M., & Brady, P. V. (2018a). Coupling Low Salinity Water Flooding and Steam Flooding for Sandstone Reservoirs; Low Salinity-Alternating-Steam Flooding (LSASF). Society of Petroleum Engineers. https://doi.org/10.2118/192168-MS
Al-Saedi, Hasan, N., Flori, R. E., Alkhamis, M., Brady, P.V. (2018b). Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery by Thermal-Different Aqueous Ionic Solutions-Low Salinity Water Flooding. Annual Technical Symposium and Exhibition held in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, 23–26 April 2018. https://doi.org/10.2118/192179-MS
Al-Saedi, Hasan, N., Flori, R.E., Alkhamis, M.Brady, P.V. (2018d). Coupling of Low-Salinity Water Flooding and Steam Flooding for Sandstone Unconventional Oil Reservoirs. Nat Resour Res. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11053-018-9407-2
Al-Saedi, Hasan, N., R. E. Flori, Alsaba, M. (2018g). Investigation of Smart Water Flooding in Sandstone Reservoirs: Experimental and Simulation Study Part2. Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference (ADIPEC). https://doi.org/10.2118/193238-MS
Al-Saedi, Hasan, N., R. E. Flori, Alsaba, M. (2018h). Coupling Low Salinity Water Flooding and Steam Flooding for Heavy Oil in Sandstone Reservoirs; Low Salinity-Alternating-Steam Flooding (LSASF): A novel EOR technique. Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference (ADIPEC). https://doi.org/10.2118/192981-MS
Austad, T.; RezaeiDoust, A.; Puntervold, T. (April 24–28, 2010). Chemical mechanism of low salinity water flooding in sandstone reservoirs. Proceedings of the 2010 Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) Improved Oil Recovery Symposium; Tulsa, OK. https://doi.org/10.2118/129767-MS
Barillas, J., Dutra, T., & Mata, W. (2006). Reservoir and operational parameters influence in SAGD process. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 54(1-2), 34–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2006.07.008
Batycky, J. P., Leaute, R. P., & Dawe, B. A. (1997, January 1). A Mechanistic Model of Cyclic Steam Stimulation. Society of Petroleum Engineers. https://doi.org/10.2118/37550-MS
Bera, A., and Babadagli, T. (2015). Status of Electromagnetic Heating for Enhanced Heavy Oil/Bitumen Recovery and Future Prospects: A Review. Appl. Energy, 151, pp. 206–226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.04.031
Britton, M. W., Martin, W. L., Leibrecht, R. J., & Harmon, R. A. (1983, March 1). The Street Ranch Pilot Test of Fracture-Assisted Steamflood Technology. Society of Petroleum Engineers. https://doi.org/10.2118/10707-PA
Escobar, M. A., Valera, C. A., & Perez, R. E. (1997, January 1). A Large Heavy Oil Reservoir in Lake Maracaibo Basin: Cyclic Steam Injection Experiences. Society of Petroleum Engineers. https://doi.org/10.2118/37551-MS
Fathi, S. J., Austad, T., & Strand, S. (2011). Water-Based Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) by "Smart Water": Optimal Ionic Composition for EOR in Carbonates. Energy & Fuels, 25(11), 5173–5179. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef201019k
Gonzalez, R., Brunings, C., & Toussaint, L. (1997, January 1). ESP's In Cyclic Steam Injection Wells. Society of Petroleum Engineers. https://doi.org/10.2118/39084-MS
Ligthelm, D. J., Gronsveld, J., Hofman, J., Brussee, N., Marcelis, F., & van der Linde, H. (2009, January 1). Novel Waterflooding Strategy by Manipulation of Injection Brine Composition. Society of Petroleum Engineers. https://doi.org/10.2118/119835-MS
Matthews, C. S. (1983, March 1). Steamflooding. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/9993-PA
McGuire, P. L.; Chatham, J. R.; Paskvan, F. K.; Sommer, D. M.; Carini, F. H. (2005). Low Salinity Oil Recovery: An Exciting New EOR Opportunity for Alaska's North Slope. SPE Western Regional Meeting, 30 March–1 April, Irvine, California; https://doi.org/10.2118/93903-MS
Morrow, N. R. (1990a). Wettability and Its Effect on Oil Recovery. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 42(12), 1476–1484. https://doi.org/10.2118/21621-pa
Morrow, N., & Buckley, J. (2011). Improved Oil Recovery by Low-Salinity Waterflooding. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 63(5). https://doi.org/10.2118/129421-ms
Nasralla, R. A., Bataweel, M. A., & Nasr-El-Din, H. A. (2013). Investigation of Wettability Alteration and Oil-Recovery Improvement by Low-Salinity Water in Sandstone Rock. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 52(02), 144–154. https://doi.org/10.2118/146322-pa
Pu, H., Xie, X., Yin, P., & Morrow, N. R. (2010, January 1). Low-Salinity Waterflooding and Mineral Dissolution. Society of Petroleum Engineers. https://doi.org/10.2118/134042-MS
RezaeiDoust, A., Puntervold, T., Strand, S., & Austad, T. (2009). Smart Water as Wettability Modifier in Carbonate and Sandstone: A Discussion of Similarities/Differences in the Chemical Mechanisms. Energy & Fuels, 23(9), 4479–4485. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef900185q
Suijkerbuijk, B. M. J. M., Sorop, T. G., Parker, A. R., Masalmeh, S. K., Chmuzh, I. V., Karpan, V. M., … Skripkin, A. G. (2014, March 31). Low Salinity Waterflooding at West Salym: Laboratory Experiments and Field Forecasts. Society of Petroleum Engineers. https://doi.org/10.2118/169691-MS
Taber, J., Martin, F., & Seright, R. (1997). EOR Screening Criteria Revisited - Part 1: Introduction to Screening Criteria and Enhanced Recovery Field Projects. SPE Reservoir Engineering, 12(03), 189–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/35385-pa
Tang, G. Q., & Morrow, N. R. (1997, November 1). Salinity, Temperature, Oil Composition, and Oil Recovery by Waterflooding. Society of Petroleum Engineers. https://doi.org/10.2118/36680-PA
Teklu, T. W., Alameri, W., Kazemi, H., & Graves, R. M. (2015a, July 20). Contact Angle Measurements on Conventional and Unconventional Reservoir Cores. Unconventional Resources Technology Conference. Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, 20-22 July, San Antonio, Texas, USA. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2015-2153996
Yi, Z., & Sarma, H. K. (2012, January 1). Improving Waterflood Recovery Efficiency in Carbonate Reservoirs through Salinity Variations and Ionic Exchanges: A Promising Low-Cost "Smart-Waterflood" Approach. Society of Petroleum Engineers. https://doi.org/10.2118/161631-MS
Yousef, A. A., Al-Saleh, S. H., Al-Kaabi, A., & Al-Jawfi, M. S. (2011, October 1). Laboratory Investigation of the Impact of Injection-Water Salinity and Ionic Content on Oil Recovery from Carbonate Reservoirs. Society of Petroleum Engineers. https://doi.org/10.2118/137634-PA
Zhang, Y., & Morrow, N. R. (2006, January 1). Comparison of Secondary and Tertiary Recovery with Change in Injection Brine Composition for Crude-Oil/Sandstone Combinations. Society of Petroleum Engineers. https://doi.org/10.2118/99757-MS