Empirical Links Between Sub-Surface Drivers and Engineering Levers for Hydraulic Fracture Treatments and the Implications for Well Performance
- Ben Stephenson (Shell Canada) | Taixu Bai (SEPCO) | Paul Huckabee (SEPCO) | John Tolle (SEPCO) | Ruijian Li (SEPCO) | Jeff MacDonald (Shell Canada) | Luis Acosta (Shell Canada)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 5-7 February, The Woodlands, Texas, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2019. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 7.2.1 Risk, Uncertainty and Risk Assessment, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 0.2 Wellbore Design, 4.1 Processing Systems and Design, 2.4 Hydraulic Fracturing, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 7.2 Risk Management and Decision-Making, 2 Well completion, 4 Facilities Design, Construction and Operation, 2.1 Completion Selection and Design, 2.1 Completion Selection and Design, 0.2.2 Geomechanics, 7 Management and Information, 3 Production and Well Operations
- Sub-surface Drivers, Well Performance, Completion Design, Hydraulic Fracture Treatments, Engineering Levers
- 427 in the last 30 days
- 427 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 8.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 25.00|
Does the sub-surface drive completion design or is the rock less of a concern with industry trends to higher proppant-, fluid- and stage-intensities? To address this challenge it was first necessary to understand; 1) how the sub-surface could potentially influence completion and stimulation design, 2) what are the available engineering levers and moreover, 3) whether well performance has actually been impacted by tailoring completions in different plays from specific case-studies.
Although there is a multitude of published field examples of how completion design changes have driven value, clarity around the inter-connectedness with sub-surface variability, either between plays or within a play, is commonly missing. New templates have been developed that describe the conceptual links between the nine key 'Sub-surface Drivers' for hydraulic fracturing and their associated engineering Levers categorized by well-, fluid-, proppant- and stage-design. These templates are a compilation of extensive empirical observations from both operations and field performance reviews incorporating thousands of wells across North America, supported with learnings from geomechanical theory and modeling.
The nine Sub-surface Drivers that influence completion design and control the access to hydrocarbons are, 1) mobility, 2) reservoir pressure, 3) gross thickness, 4) layering heterogeneity, 5) rock stiffness, 6) natural fractures, 7) stress anisotropy, 8) risk of fraccing faults and, 9) risk of fraccing out of zone. Drivers 1-7 govern the connectivity, whereas 8 and 9 influence stimulation ineffectiveness. It is proposed that there are approximately fifteen primary engineering Levers related to these nine Drivers, which have been shown to have a measurable impact on completion effectiveness and/or production.
Case studies illustrate that the Sub-surface Drivers play a significant role in most plays, but they are not all relevant in every play. The challenge is to acknowledge the variability, or lack of, and pursue completion design optimization goals, while managing the variance in the well performance range.
Whereas industry trends of increasing completions intensity have delivered more value in many plays, the Sub-surface Drivers concept have primarily proven useful to mitigate against poor wells in development and explain exploration failures. By developing a systematic set of templates for Drivers and their respective levers, learnings from other operators can be high-graded through the formulation of connectivity analogues with the goal of showing where changes in completion design may be more, or less applicable.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||24|
Azad, A., Somanchi, K., Brewer, J. R., & Yang, D. (2017a, January 24). Accelerating Completions Concept Select in Unconventional Plays Using Diagnostics and Frac Modeling. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/184867-MS.
Bai, T., Will, J., Eckardt, S., GmbH, D., Chang, D., Lake, E., … Chu, J. (2016, February 1). Hydraulic Fracture Modeling Workflow and Toolkits for Well Completion Optimization in Unconventionals. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/179137-MS.
Barree, R. D., Conway, M. W., Gilbert, J. V., & Woodroof, R. A. (2010, January 1). Evidence of Strong Fracture Height Containment Based on Complex Shear Failure and Formation Anisotropy. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/134142-MS.
Britt, L. K., Otzen, G., Guzman, M., Kusanovic, G., Alqatrani, G., & Dunn-Norman, S. (2016, August 24). Hydraulic Fracturing of a Clay Rich Formation in Southern Chile: The Challenges &amp; Successes. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/181808-MS.
Cadotte, R. J., Whitsett, A., Sorrell, M., & Hunter, B. (2017, October 9). Modern Completion Optimization in the Haynesville Shale. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/187315-MS.
Cho, Y., Eker, E., Uzun, I., Yin, X., & Kazemi, H. (2016, May 5). Rock Characterization in Unconventional Reservoirs: A Comparative Study of Bakken, Eagle Ford, and Niobrara Formations. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/180239-MS.
Cipolla, C. L., Fitzpatrick, T., Williams, M. J., & Ganguly, U. K. (2011, January 1). Seismic-to-Simulation for Unconventional Reservoir Development. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/146876-MS.
Drilling Info, 2012. The Impacts of Faults and Fractures on Production in the Niobrara PRB. http://info.drillinginfo.com/what-impacts-to-faults-and-fractures-play-on-production-in-the-niobrara-prb/
DUG Haynesville conference (2018).Chesapeake Energy. https://www.chk.com/Documents/investors/2018%20DUG%20Conference.pdf
Fisher, M. K., Heinze, J. R., Harris, C. D., Davidson, B. M., Wright, C. A., & Dunn, K. P. (2004, January 1). Optimizing Horizontal Completion Techniques in the Barnett Shale Using Microseismic Fracture Mapping. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/90051-MS.
Gale, J. F. W., Elliott, S. J., & Laubach, S. E. (2018, August 9). Hydraulic Fractures in Core From Stimulated Reservoirs: Core Fracture Description of HFTS Slant Core, Midland Basin, West Texas. Unconventional Resources Technology Conference. doi:10.15530/URTEC-2018-2902624.
Givens, N., Zhao, H., 2004. Online document from BEG, University of Texas. http://www.beg.utexas.edu/pttc/archive/barnettshalesym/notsosimple.pdf
Gupta, J., Zielonka, M., Albert, R. A., El-Rabaa, A. M., Burnham, H. A., & Choi, N. H. (2012, January 1). Integrated Methodology for Optimizing Development of Unconventional Gas Resources. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/152224-MS.
Jacobs, T. (2018, August 1). In the Battle Against Frac Hits, Shale Producers Go to New Extremes. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/0818-0035-JPT.
King, G. E., Haile, L., Shuss, J. A., & Dobkins, T. (2008, January 1). Increasing Fracture Path Complexity and Controlling Downward Fracture Growth in the Barnett Shale. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/119896-MS.
Lv, Z., Wang, L., Deng, S., Chong, K. K., Wang, Q., & Dumesnil, J. P. (2013, October 7). China Shale Gas Exploration: Early Sichuan Basin Longmaxi Shale Gas Stimulation and Completion Case Study. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/166746-MS.
Maity, D., Ciezobka, J., & Eisenlord, S. (2018, August 9). Assessment of In-Situ Proppant Placement in SRV Using Through- Fracture Core Sampling at HFTS. Unconventional Resources Technology Conference. doi:10.15530/URTEC-2018-2902364
Miskimins, J. L., & Barree, R. D. (2003, January 1). Modeling of Hydraulic Fracture Height Containment in Laminated Sand and Shale Sequences. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/80935-MS.
Mokhtari, M., Honarpour, M. M. M.,Tutuncu, A. N., & Boitnott, G. N. (2014, October 27). Acoustical and Geomechanical Characterization of Eagle Ford Shale -Anisotropy, Heterogeneity and Measurement Scale. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/170707-MS.
Mullen, M. J., Roundtree, R., & Turk, G. A. (2007, January 1). A Composite Determination of Mechanical Rock Properties for Stimulation Design (What to Do When You Don't Have a Sonic Log). Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/108139-MS.
Nieto, J., Janega, G., Batlai, B., & Martinez, H. (2018, August 9). An Integrated Approach to Optimizing Completions and Protecting Parent Wells in the Montney Formation, N.E.B.C. Unconventional Resources Technology Conference. doi:10.15530/URTEC-2018-2902707.
Price, B., Haustveit, K., & Lamb, A. (2017, July 24). Influence of Stratigraphy on Barriers to Fracture Growth and Completion Optimization in the Meramec Stack Play, Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma. Unconventional Resources Technology Conference. doi:10.15530/URTEC-2017-2697585
Rassenfoss, S. (2015, September 1). Search for Elusive Sweet Spots Is Changing Reservoir Evaluation. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/0915-0052-JPT.
Raterman, K. T., Farrell, H. E., Mora, O. S., Janssen, A. L., Gomez, G. A., Busetti, S., … Warren, M. (2017, July 24). Sampling a Stimulated Rock Volume: An Eagle Ford Example. Unconventional Resources Technology Conference. doi:10.15530/URTEC-2017-2670034.
Rickman, R., Mullen, M. J., Petre, J. E., Grieser, W. V., & Kundert, D. (2008, January 1). A Practical Use of Shale Petrophysics for Stimulation Design Optimization: All Shale Plays Are Not Clones of the Barnett Shale. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/115258-MS.
Somanchi, K., O'Brien, C., Huckabee, P., & Ugueto, G. (2016, August 1). Insights and Observations into Limited Entry Perforation Dynamics from Fiber-Optic Diagnostics. Unconventional Resources Technology Conference. doi:10.15530/URTEC-2016-2458389.
Stephenson, B., Fannin, R., Dick, C., Williams, M., Cakici, D., 2013. Structural Stage Spacing: a win-win-win technique for costs, EUR and HSE. URTeC conference paper (Denver), pp8, # 1577021, SPE-168718. https://www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/SPE-168718.
Stephenson, B. & Coflin, K., 2015. Guidelines for the Handling of Natural Fractures and Faults in Hydraulically Stimulated Resource Plays. Unconventionals Resources Conference, Calgary, Oct 2015. SPE-175910-MS, 18 p., doi:10.2118/175910-MS. https://www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/SPE-175910-MS.
Stephenson, B., Cartwright, J., Hooker, J., Hnat, J., 2015b. What Actually Controls SRV? Three Concepts to Debate a Stimulation or Stimulate a Debate! Unconventionals Resources Conference, Calgary, Oct 2015. SPE-175909-MS, 10 p., doi:10.2118/175909-MS.
Stephenson, B., Galan, E., Williams, W., Macdonald, J., Carduner, R., Azad, A., Zimmer, U., 2018a. Geometry and failure mechanisms from microseismic in the Duvernay Shale to explain changes in well performance with drilling azimuth. Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, Houston. SPE-189863-MS.
Talbot, D. M., Hemke, K. A., & Leshchyshyn, T. H. (2000, January 1). Stimulation Fracture Height Control Above Water or Depleted Zones. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/60318-MS.
Thompson, J., Franciose, N., Schutt, M., Hartig, K., & McKenna, J. (2018, August 9). Tank Development in the Midland Basin, Texas: A Case Study of Super-Charging a Reservoir to Optimize Production and Increase Horizontal Well Densities. Unconventional Resources Technology Conference. doi:10.15530/URTEC-2018-2902895.
Ugueto C., G. A., Huckabee, P. T., Molenaar, M. M., Wyker, B., & Somanchi, K. (2016, February 1). Perforation Cluster Efficiency of Cemented Plug and Perf Limited Entry Completions; Insights from Fiber Optics Diagnostics. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/179124-MS
Weddle, P., Griffin, L., & Pearson, C. M. (2018, January 23). Mining the Bakken II - Pushing the Envelope with Extreme Limited Entry Perforating. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/189880-MS.
Yeh, T., Cakici, D., Jennings, J., Will, J., Guerra, J. C., Durand, M., Bai, T. (2018, August 9). An Integrated Geomechanics-Reservoir Simulation Workflow for Completion Design Optimization. Unconventional Resources Technology Conference. doi:10.15530/URTEC-2018-2902561.