Using Land Controlled Source Electromagnetics to Identify the Effects of Geologic Controls During a Zipper Frac Operation - A Case Study from the Anadarko Basin
- Mark Hickey (Deep Imaging Technologies) | Oscar Vasquez (Deep Imaging Technologies) | Santiago Trevino (Deep Imaging Technologies) | Justin Oberle (Deep Imaging Technologies) | Drew Jones (Deep Imaging Technologies)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, 5-7 February, The Woodlands, Texas, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2019. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2 Well completion, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 1.6.6 Directional Drilling, 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 3 Production and Well Operations, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 2.4 Hydraulic Fracturing, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 3 Production and Well Operations
- imaging, monitoring, csem, electromagnetics, hydraulic fracturing
- 12 in the last 30 days
- 655 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 8.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 25.00|
Controlled Source Electromagnetics (CSEM) is used to monitor and image a three well zipper frac operation. We examine the interaction between the completions operation and a fault zone at reservoir depth.
Using two grounded dipole transmitter lines and 350 receiver locations, 27 frac stages were monitored in the Anadarko basin for three horizontal wells. Our broadband signal is transmitted before the start of the frac stage, during the frac stage, and after the frac stage is completed. This allows us to establish a baseline image prior to the start of the frac stage and to generate a response throughout the frac. The electromagnetic data collected provides a direct measurement of the conductivity change in the subsurface caused by the hydraulic fracturing process and from this we infer fluid movement.
This case study presents the effects of a fault at reservoir depths that is intersected by the three wells and examines the possible effects of formation heterogeneities on frac fluid migration. Images produced by our CSEM method illustrate the lateral extent of the fluid, fracture azimuth, and identify reservoir heterogeneities. In addition, unlike microseismic, the CSEM method records signal generated from fluid flow in natural fractures as well as those fractures created by hydraulic pressure. As a result, CSEM allows us to infer fluid propagation and location to gauge frac behavior near and away from the fault where the fault zone is seen possibly acting as a sink and barrier. CSEM monitoring of a frac operation not only serves as a tool for monitoring and fracture diagnostic, it can also be used to identify geologic controls that can affect reservoir stimulation.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||16|
Commer, G., Hoversten, M., and Um, E.S (2015). Transient-electromagnetic finite-difference time-domain earth modeling over steel infrastructure. Geophysics, 80(2), E147-E162. https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2014-0324.1
Hang Si (2015). TetGen, a Delaunay-Based Quality Tetrahedral Mesh Generator. ACM Trans. on Mathematical Software. 41(2), Article 11, 36 pages. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2629697
Hickey, M. S., Treviño III, S., & Everett, M. E. (2015). Detection and Characterization of the Injection of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid using Ground-Based Controlled-Source Electromagnetics. In SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2015 (pp. 1039-1043). Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Streich, R. (2016). Controlled-Source Electromagnetic Approaches for Hydrocarbon Exploration and Monitoring on Land. Surveys in Geophysics, 37, 47-80, DOI 10.1007/s10712-015-9336-0