Modeling the Effect of Reaction Kinetics and Dispersion during Low-Salinity Waterflooding
- Daulet Magzymov (John and Willie Leone Family Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering and The EMS Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University) | Prakash Purswani (John and Willie Leone Family Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering and The EMS Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University) | Zuleima T. Karpyn (John and Willie Leone Family Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering and The EMS Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University) | Russell T. Johns (John and Willie Leone Family Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering and The EMS Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Simulation Conference, 10-11 April, Galveston, Texas, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2019. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.6 Acidizing, 5.4 Improved and Enhanced Recovery, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 2 Well completion, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 5.4.1 Waterflooding
- low salinity waterflooding, characteristic component, reservoir simulation, reaction kinetics, dispersion, wettability alteration modeling
- 10 in the last 30 days
- 157 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 9.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
The objective of this paper is to model low-salinity waterflooding by honoring physico-chemical complexity, namely, the effects of reaction kinetics and dispersion. Recent literature provides evidence for the potential of low-salinity water injection to improve oil recovery through wettability alteration through a complex network of reactions. However, there is lack of consensus with respect to the exact chemical species that are responsible for the alteration process. Therefore, in this study, we develop a a simplified binary multiphase reactive transport model that honors the general surface reaction for wettability alteration, but at the same time includes effects of reaction kinetics and dispersion in the governing equations.
We lump the reactants, such as sodium, calcium, and petroleum acids, into two characteristic components based on their contribution to oil or water wetness. The wettability alteration process is modelled as a competition between these primary characteristic components to occupy the rock surface as described by reaction kinetics.
The simulation results show a significant impact of reaction kinetics on the rate of wettability alteration compared to assuming instantaneous equilibrium. In the limiting case of a very slow reaction rate (Da ~ 0), low-salinity injection does not alter the wettability. Particularly, no effect on ultimate oil recovery is observed, regardless of the injected salinity level. For the case of an instantaneous reaction the ultimate oil recovery is sensitive to the injected fluid salinity. Moreover, during fast reactions (Da ~ 10-4), the wettability alteration front moves slower than the injected fluid front caused by excess salt in the solution that desorbs from the rock surface. The delay in wettability alteration is crucial to consider for an appropriate slug size design of low-salinity injection. Lastly, we observe that dispersion does not affect the ultimate oil recovery during wettability alteration as compared to reaction kinetics.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||19|
Austad, T. Strand, E. J. Høgnesen, and P. Zhang (2005) ‘Seawater as IOR Fluid in Fractured Chalk’, in SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry. Houston, Texas, pp. 1-10. DOI: 10.2118/93000-MS.
Bai, B., Wu, Y. and Grigg, R. B. (2009) ‘Adsorption and Desorption Kinetics and Equilibrium of Calcium Lignosulfonate on Dolomite Porous Media’, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. American Chemical Society, 113(31), pp. 13772-13779. DOI: 10.1021/jp9028326.
Buckley, S. E. and Leverett, M. C. (1942) ‘Mechanism of Fluid Displacement in Sands’, Transactions of the AIME. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 146(01), pp. 107-116. DOI: 10.2118/942107-G.
Coronado, M. and Díaz-Viera, M. A. (2017) ‘Modeling fines migration and permeability loss caused by low salinity in porous media’, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, pp. 355-365. DOI: 10.1016/j.petrol.2016.12.021.
Fan, T. and Buckley, J. (2007) ‘Acid Number Measurements Revisited’, SPE Journal, 12(4), pp. 22-26. DOI: 10.2118/99884-PA.
Fathi, S. J., Austad, T., Strand, S. and Puntervold, T., (2010) ‘Wettability alteration in carbonates: The effect of water-soluble carboxylic acids in crude oil’, Energy and Fuels, 24(5), pp. 2974-2979. DOI: 10.1021/ef901527h.
Fathi, S. J., Austad, T. and Strand, S. (2010a) ‘"smart water" as a wettability modifier in chalk: The effect of salinity and ionic composition’, Energy and Fuels, 24(4), pp. 2514-2519. DOI: 10.1021/ef901304m.
Fathi, S. J., Austad, T. and Strand, S. (2010b) ‘"Smart Water" as a Wettability Modifier in Chalk: The Effect of Salinity and Ionic Composition’, Energy & Fuels. American Chemical Society, 24(4), pp. 2514-2519. DOI: 10.1021/ef901304m.
Fathi, S. J., Austad, T. and Strand, S. (2011a) ‘Effect of water-extractable carboxylic acids in crude oil on wettability in carbonates’, Energy and Fuels, 25(6), pp. 2587-2592. DOI: 10.1021/ef200302d.
Fathi, S. J., Austad, T. and Strand, S. (2011b) ‘Water-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by "smart water": Optimal ionic composition for EOR in carbonates’, Energy and Fuels, 25(11), pp. 5173-5179. DOI: 10.1021/ef201019k.
Jerauld, G., Webb, K.J., Lin, C.Y. and Seccombe, J. (2008) ‘Modeling Low-Salinity Waterflooding’, SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 11(6), pp. 24-27. DOI: 10.2118/102239-PA.
Khrapitchev, A. A. and Callaghan, P. T. (2003) ‘Reversible and irreversible dispersion in a porous medium’, Physics of Fluids. American Institute of Physics, 15(9), pp. 2649-2660. DOI: 10.1063/1.1596914.
Lake, L., Johns, R.T., Rossen, W.R. and Pope, G.A. (2014) Fundamentals of enhanced oil recovery. Society of Petroleum Engineers. Available at: https://store.spe.org/Fundamentals-of-Enhanced-Oil-Recovery-Available-for-Pre-Order-P921.aspx.
Litvak, M. L. and Angert, P. F. (2009) ‘Field Development Optimization Applied to Giant Oil Fields’, in SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium. Society of Petroleum Engineers. DOI: 10.2118/118840-MS.
Mahani, H., Berg, S., Ilic, D., Bartels, W.B. and Joekar-Niasar, V. (2015) ‘Kinetics of Low-Salinity-Flooding Effect’, SPE Journal, 20(01), pp. 008-020. DOI: 10.2118/165255-PA.
McGuire, P. L., Chatham, J.R., Paskvan, F.K., Sommer, D.M. and Carini, F.H. (2005) ‘Low Salinity Oil Recovery: An Exciting New EOR Opportunity for Alaska&amp;apos;s North Slope’, SPE Western Regional Meeting, pp. 1-15. DOI: 10.2118/93903-MS.
Myint, P. C. and Firoozabadi, A. (2015) ‘Thin liquid films in improved oil recovery from low-salinity brine’, Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science. Elsevier B.V., 20(2), pp. 105-114. DOI: 10.1016/j.cocis.2015.03.002.
Nelson, P. H. (2009) ‘Pore-throat sizes in sandstones, tight sandstones, and shales’, AAPG Bulletin. GeoScienceWorld, 93(3), pp. 329-340. DOI: 10.1306/10240808059.
Northrup, M. A.et al. (1993) ‘Direct measurement of interstitial velocity field variations in a porous medium using fluorescent-particle image velocimetry’, Chemical Engineering Science. Pergamon, 48(1), pp. 13-21. DOI: 10.1016/0009-2509(93)80279-Y.
Perkins, T. K. and Johnston, O. C. (1963) ‘A Review of Diffusion and Dispersion in Porous Media’, Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 3(01), pp. 70-84. DOI: 10.2118/480-PA.
Purswani, P. and Karpyn, Z. T. (2019) ‘Laboratory investigation of chemical mechanisms driving oil recovery from oil-wet carbonate rocks’, Fuel. Elsevier, 235(November 2017), pp. 406-415. DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2018.07.078.
Purswani, P., Tawfik, M. S. and Karpyn, Z. (2017) ‘Factors and Mechanisms Governing Wettability Alteration by Chemically Tuned Waterflooding : A Review’, Energy & Fuels. DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.7b01067.
Qiao, C., Li, L., Johns, R.T. and Xu, J., (2015) ‘A Mechanistic Model for Wettability Alteration by Chemically Tuned Waterflooding in Carbonate Reservoirs’, SPE Journal, pp. 767-783. DOI: 10.2118/170966-PA.
Qiao, C., Johns, R. and Li, L. (2016) ‘Modeling Low-Salinity Waterflooding in Chalk and Limestone Reservoirs’, Energy and Fuels, 30(2), pp. 884-895. DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b02456.
Rasmussen, C. P., Krejbjerg, K., Michelsen, M.L. and Bjurstrøm, K.E, (2006) ‘Increasing the Computational Speed of Flash Calculations With Applications for Compositional, Transient Simulations’, SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 9(01), pp. 32-38. DOI: 10.2118/84181-PA.
Saraji, S., Goual, L. and Piri, M. (2010) ‘Adsorption of Asphaltenes in Porous Media under Flow Conditions’, Energy & Fuels. American Chemical Society, 24(11), pp. 6009-6017. DOI: 10.1021/ef100881k.
Skrettingland, K., Holt, T., Tweheyo, M.T. and Skjevrak, I. (2011) ‘Snorre Low-Salinity-Water Injection--Coreflooding Experiments and Single-Well Field Pilot’, SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 14(02), pp. 182-192. DOI: 10.2118/129877-PA.
Strand, S., Høgnesen, E. J. and Austad, T. (2006) ‘Wettability alteration of carbonates—Effects of potential determining ions (Ca2+ and SO42-) and temperature’, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. Elsevier, 275(1-3), pp. 1-10. DOI: 10.1016/J.COLSURFA.2005.10.061.
Tang, G. Q. and Morrow, N. R. (1997) ‘Salinity, Temperature, Oil Composition, and Oil Recovery by Waterflooding’, SPE Reservoir Engineering, 12(November), pp. 269-276. DOI: 10.2118/36680-PA.
Tang, G. Q. and Morrow, N. R. (1999) ‘Influence of brine composition and fines migration on crude oil/brine/rock interactions and oil recovery’, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 24(2-4), pp. 99-111. DOI: 10.1016/S0920-4105(99)00034-0.
Thyne, G. and Gamage, P. (2011) ‘Evaluation of the Effect of Low Salinity Waterflooding for 26 Fields in Wyoming’, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. DOI: 10.2118/147410-MS.
Yildiz, H. O. and Morrow, N. R. (1996) ‘Effect of brine composition on recovery of Moutray crude oil by waterflooding’, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 14(3-4), pp. 159-168. DOI: 10.1016/0920-4105(95)00041-0.
Zhang, P. and Austad, T. (2006) ‘Wettability and oil recovery from carbonates : Effects of temperature and potential determining ions’, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 279, pp. 179-187. DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2006.01.009.
Zhang, P., Tweheyo, M. T. and Austad, T. (2007) ‘Wettability alteration and improved oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition of seawater into chalk: Impact of the potential determining ions Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO4 2-’, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 301(1-3), pp. 199-208. DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2006.12.058.
Zhang, Y. and Morrow, N. R. (2006) ‘Comparison of Secondary and Tertiary Recovery With Change in Injection Brine Composition for Crude-Oil/Sandstone Combinations’, in SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery. Society of Petroleum Engineers. DOI: 10.2118/99757-MS.