Wastewater Injection and Slip Triggering: Results from a 3d Coupled Reservoir/Rate-and-State Model
- Mohsen Babazadeh (University of Texas at Austin) | Jon Olson (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 24-26 September, Dallas, Texas, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2018. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 0.2 Wellbore Design, 1.10 Drilling Equipment
- Wastewater Injection, Fault Reactivation, Rate and State Friction, Earthquake Modeling, Induced Seismicity
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 277 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
This paper present results from a combined model that brings together injection physics, reservoir dynamics, and fault physics to better explain the primary controls on induced seismicity. We created a 3D fluid flow simulator with embedded discrete fracture technique, coupled with a 3D displacement discontinuity geomechanics model that uses rate and state friction to model stable or unstable rupture events. The model incorporates reservoir properties including vertical and horizontal extent; stratification including top-seal, reservoir, and basement; multiple permeability and porosity. Injection parameters include rate and pressure. Fault properties include size, 2D permeability, and frictional properties. Several suites of simulations were run to evaluate the relative importance of each of the factors from all three parameter groups.
We find that the injection parameters interact with the reservoir parameters in the context of the fault physics. For a given reservoir and fault properties, injection rate increases magnitude and frequency of earthquakes, and volume is unimportant. For a different reservoir, these relations may change, leading to the need to specify/examine the injection parameters only within the context of a particular faulted reservoir. Both injection and reservoir properties can interact with the fault properties to trigger or impede slip, so that the magnitudes of induced earthquakes depend on all three groups of parameters. For example, the fault permeability structure is a key factor in inducing earthquakes in basement in many reservoir scenarios. In some cases, the main component in inducing seismicity include the pressure on the fault and its rate of change, which affect how big of a fault area is being affected, and therefore initial earthquake size. By implication, selecting reservoirs for wastewater disposal may involve prioritizing those reservoirs with higher permeability as it takes longer for fluid pressure to exceed critical pressure and trigger large unstable rupture events on nearby faults.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||14|
Corey, A.T.,Rathjens, C.H.,Henderson, J.H., and Wylie, M.R.J., 1956. "Three-Phase Relative Permeability," Journal of Petroleum Technology 8(11): 63-65. https://dx.doi.org/10.2118/737-G.
Ghassemi, A.,Nygren, A., and Cheng, A., 2008. "Effects of Heat Extraction on Fracture Aperture: A Porothermoelastic Analysis," Geothermics, 37 (5), 525-539. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geothermics.2008.06.0011.
Häring, M.O.,Schanz, U.,Ladner, F., et al. 2008. "Characterization of the Basel 1 enhanced geothermal system." Geothermics, 37 (5):469-495. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geothermics.2008.06.002
Hornbach, M. J.., 2015. "Causal Factors for Seismicity Near Azle, Texas," Nat. Commun., 6(6728), 1-11, doi:10.1038/ncomms7728.
Kim, J.,Tchelepi, H., and Juanes, R., 2011. "Stability, accuracy, and efficiency of sequential methods for coupled flow and geomechanics," SPE Journal, 16(02), 249—262. https://doi.org/10.2118/119084-PA
Langenbruch, C.,Zoback, M. D., 2016. "How will induced seismicity in Oklahoma respond to decreased saltwater injection rates?" Science Advances, 2 (11), https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1601542
Li, L. and Lee, S.H., 2008. "Efficient field-scale simulation of black oil in a naturally fractured reservoir through discrete fracture networks and homogenized media," SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 11(04), 750—758. https://doi.org/10.2118/103901-PA.
McClure, M. W.,Babazadeh, M.,Shiozawa, S., & Huang, J., 2016. "Fully Coupled Hydromechanical Simulation of Hydraulic Fracturing in 3D Discrete-Fracture Networks," SPE Journal. 21(04), 1,302-1,320. https://doi.org/10.2118/173354-PA.
McClure, M.,Gibson, R.,Chiu, K.-K., and Ranganath, R., 2017. "Identifying potentially induced seismicity and assessing statistical significance in Oklahoma and California," Journal of Geophysical Research Solid Earth, 122, 2153-2172, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JB013711
Moinfar, A.,Varavei, A.,Sepehrnoori, K., and Johns, R.T., 2014. "Development of an Efficient Embedded Discrete Fracture Model for 3D Compositional Reservoir Simulation in Fractured Reservoirs," SPE Journal, 19(02), 289—303. https://doi.org/10.2118/154246-PA.
Neshat, S. S.,Pope. G. A., 2017. "Compositional three-phase relative permeability and capillary pressure models using Gibbs free energy," presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Conference, Montgomery, Texas, 20-22 February. SPE-182592-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/182592-MS.
Neshat, S. S.,Okuno, R.,Pope. G. A., 2017. "A rigorous solution to the problem of phase behavior in unconventional formations with high capillary pressure," SPE Journal. https://doi.org/10.2118/187260-PA.
Olson, J.,Gono, V.,Babazadeh, M., 2018. "Examining the Factors That Contribute to the Occurrence and Magnitude of Induced Seismicity," Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics V: Seismic Hazard Analysis, Earthquake Ground Motions, and Regional-Scale Assessment, 11-19. https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784481462.
Rutqvist, J.,Rinaldi, A. P.,Cappa, F.,Moridis, G. J., 2015. "Modeling of fault activation and seismicity by injection directly into a fault zone associated with hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs," Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Volume 127, 2015, Pages 377-386, ISSN 0920-4105, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.01.019.
Segedin, C. M., 1951. "Note on a penny-shaped crack under shear. Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philisophical Society," 47(2): 396-400, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305004100026736.
Sneddon, I. N., 1946. "The distribution of stress in the neighborhood of a crack in an elastic solid," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series A, 187(1009): 229-260, https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1946.0077
Weingarten, M.,S. Ge,J. W. Godt,B. A. Bekins, and J. L. Rubinstein, 2015. "High-rate Injection is Associated With The Increase in U.S. Mid-continent Seismicity," Science, 348(6241), 1336-1340. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aab1345