Temperature and Geometry Effects on the Fracture Surfaces Dissolution Patterns in Acid Fracturing
- Murtada Saleh Aljawad (Texas A&M University) | Ding Zhu (Texas A&M University) | Alfred Daniel Hill (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Europec featured at 80th EAGE Conference and Exhibition, 11-14 June, Copenhagen, Denmark
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2018. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 3 Production and Well Operations, 2 Well completion, 3 Production and Well Operations, 2.6 Acidizing
- Modeling, Acid, Temperature, Fracturing, Geometry
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 214 since 2007
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Modeling acid fracturing operations in carbonate formations is performed to evaluate the possible improvement in well productivity. Models are developed to mainly estimate the acid penetration length and the fracture surfaces etched-width profile. Variable combinations of these two parameters produce a significant difference in the fracture productivity. To better estimate these parameters, a reliable fracture propagation model should be coupled with the acid reaction/transport model. Simulating weak acids or dolomite formations reactivity requires the inclusion of a heat transfer model. The model provided in this study couples these factors as fractures propagate to finally obtain the fracture conductivity distribution along its length.
The fracture propagation model continuously updates the domain for the acid model. A transient acid convection and diffusion equation is solved and the fracture etched-width profile is calculated. An iterative procedure is implemented in a temperature dependent kinetic model which is stopped when both the temperature and acid solutions converge. When injection stops, acid etching and the fluids temperature are updated as the fracture closes. As the final etching profile is drawn, conductivity is calculated using a correlation that considers formation heterogeneity.
Coupling fracture propagation shows a significant difference on the acid model solutions compared to that assuming constant fracture geometry. For extremely high Peclet number that represents a very retarded acid system, a constant drop in the etched-width value until reaching zero at the fracture tip is theoretically obtainable. For lower Peclet numbers, the etching profile is shown to be sharply declining towards the fracture end. This is in contrast with the non-coupled approach from which a uniform etching profile is obtained at moderate to high Peclet numbers. It is also observed that the simulation of acid injection in non-coupled, constant fracture geometry always overestimates the acid penetration distance. The etched-width distribution and the acid penetration length are temperature sensitive, especially in dolomite formations. Temperature coupling shows that the maximum etching in dolomite formations occurs away from the fracture entrance as acid reactivity increases. It also shows that the cooling effects of the first stage pad fluid on improving the acid penetration distance is limited.
Simulating acid fracturing operations assuming constant final fracture geometry and an average single temperature is time efficient but results in inaccurate solution. This paper quantifies the effects of integrating fracture propagating and heat transfer models on the acid etching pattern from which, a better estimate of the fracture productivity is expected.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||24|