Molecular Structure Characterization and Interaction of a Polymer Blend of Xanthan Gum-Polyacrylamide to Improve Mobility-Control on a Mature Polymer Flood
- G. Fondevila Sancet (CAPSA-CAPEX) | M. Goldman (CAPSA-CAPEX) | J. M. Buciak (CAPSA-CAPEX) | O. Varela (CIHIDECAR CONICET UBA) | N. D'Accorso (CIHIDECAR CONICET UBA) | M. Fascio (CIHIDECAR CONICET UBA) | V. Manzano (CIHIDECAR CONICET UBA) | M. Luong (CIHIDECAR CONICET UBA)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, 26-28 March, Muscat, Oman
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2018. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.1 Processing Systems and Design, 4 Facilities Design, Construction and Operation, 5.4 Improved and Enhanced Recovery, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.3.6 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex), 5.4.10 Microbial Methods, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics
- Polymer Blend, Xanthan Gum, EOR, Argentina, Polymer Flooding
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 132 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 8.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 25.00|
According to the strategy to search alternative products which can replace (partially) the use of expensive polymers in polymer-flood projects, this work helps to find the optimum combination between polymer and xanthan-gum to develop a mixture that generates viscosity in good economical and rheological conditions.
The aim of this work is the characterization of the mixture of a biopolymer (xanthan gum) and a synthetic polyacrylamide in specific proportions and reservoir conditions. Both polymers are suitable for polymer flooding, but they have weaknesses on their own: the polyacrylamide is very susceptible to saline environments and mechanical degradation, while biopolymers as xanthan gum exceed these reservoir conditions but are highly degraded by some bacteria. A polymer blend of mother solutions was prepared by mechanical mixing. It is proved that a blend improves the desirable properties of mobility control if the polymers show miscibility. Several techniques were used to evidence possible interaction between the polymers.
A series of tests were performed to provide complementary data regarding molecule structure, miscibility, interaction and stability of the xanthan gum-polyacrylamide mixture at 35/65 proportion in a 16,000 ppm TDS reservoir synthetic brine. The polymer mother solutions and the mixture were lyophilized in order to determine thermal events by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Also Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) were performed to obtain distinctive molecular fingerprint; and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) so as to complete the morphological studies.
This work shows detailed techniques of the characterization and the conclusions achieved that confirm the molecular interaction of the blend. DSC analysis at low temperatures evidence similar vitric transitions for xanthan gum and polyacrylamide mother solutions. Vitric transition temperature (Tg) is related to the polymer network packing and hydrodynamic volume, concluding that similar values means that both polymers can travel together through the porous media without being segregated. The single Tg obtained for the mixture could indicate interactions between the polymers. This interaction was also shown in the FTIR analysis: the mixture spectra showed displacement of some signals of the fingerprint zone. On the other hand, the 1H NMR spectra of the mixture did not show differences with the pure polymers ones. SEM micrographies show no surface separation: xanthan gum deposits over the continued and directional layers of polyacrylamide evidencing phase integration.
Blends of bio and synthetic polymers are investigated widely in other industries due to their benefits. Up to date, there are no reports of the use of polymer mixtures in polymer flooding. The results of this work will enable the design of a pilot to be conducted during 2018 on a mature polymer-flooded area with more than 10 years of polymer-flooding (Buciak, 2013).
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||14|
Bhat, V.; Shivakumar, H. R.; Sheshappa, R. K. and Sanjeev, G. 2014. Preparation and study on miscibility, thermal behaviour of biocompatible polymer blends of xanthan Gum-polyacrylamide Int. J. Plast. Technol. 18: 183-191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12588-014-9078-8.
Buciak, J.; Fondevila Sancet G. and Del Pozo L. 2013. Polymer Flooding Pilot Learning Curve: 5+ Years Experience to Reduce Cost per Incremental Oil Barrel. SPE 166255. https://www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/SPE-166255-MS.
Bueno, V. B. and Bentini, R. and Catalani, L.H. and Petri, D.F.S. 2013. Synthesis and swelling behaviour of xanthan-based hydrogels. Carbohydrate Polymers. 92 (2): 1091-1099. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.10.062.
Fernández-d'Arlas Bidegain, B.González, I. and Eceiza Mendiguren, A. 2015. Hacia la mímesis de la seda de araña a partir de poliuretanos con segmentos cortos de unidades rígidas y semi-flexibles (towards spider silk mimicry using polyurethanes with short segments of rigid and semiflexible units). Revista Latinamericana de metalurgia y materiales. 35: 39-48. Available in: http://www.rlmm.org/ojs/index.php/rlmm/article/view/532.
Giannouli, P. and Morris, E.R. 2003. Cryogelation of xanthan. Food Hydrocolloids, 17(4): 495-501. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0268-005X(03)00019-5.
Ghoumrassi-Barr, S. and Aliouche D. 2016. A Rheological Study of Xanthan Polymer for Enhanced Oil Recovery. Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part B. 55 (8): 793-809. DOI https://doi.org/10.1080/00222348.2016.1207544.
Jang, H. Y. and Zhang, K.; Chon, B. H. and Choi H. J. 2015. Enhanced oil recovery performance and viscosity characteristics of polysaccharide xanthan gum solution. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 21: 741-745. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2014.04.005.
Jansson, P. E. and Kenne, L. and Lindberg, B. 1975. Structure of the extracellular polysaccharide from Xanthomonas Campestris. Carhohydrate Research. 45(1): 275-282. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6215(00)85885-1.
Milas, M. and Rinaudo, M. 1979. Conformational investigation on the bacterial polysaccharide xanthan. Carhohydrate Research. 76 (1): 189-196. https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-6215(79)80017-8.
Milas, M. and Rinaudo, M. 1978. Polyelectroyte behavior of a bacterial polysaccharide from Xanthomonas campestris: Comparison with carboxymethylcellulose. Biopolymers. 17(11): 2663 -2678. https://doi.org/10.1002/bip.1978.360171113.
Nic, M. and Jirat, J. and Kosata, B. 2006. XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.
Pereira, A. S.; Andrade, R. M. and Soares, E. J. 2013. Drag reduction induced by flexible and rigid molecules in a turbulent flow into a rotating cylindrical double gap device: Comparison between Poly (ethylene oxide), Polyacrylamide, and Xanthan Gum. Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics. 202: 72-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnnfm.2013.09.008.
Rinaudo, M. and Milas, M.; Lambert, F. and Vincendon, M. 1983. lH and 13C NMR Investigation of Xanthan Gum, Macromolecules. 5: 816-819. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma00239a018.
Rodriguez, A. K. and Ayyavu, C.; Iyengar, S. R.; Bazzi, H. S.; Masad, E.; Little, D. and Hanley, H. J. M. 2016. Polyampholyte polymer as a stabiliser for subgrade soil, International Journal of Pavement Engineering, https://doi.org/10.1080/10298436.2016.1175561.
Sandvik, E. I. and Maerker, J. M. 1977. Application of Xanthan Gum for Enhanced Oil Recovery. Extracellular Microbial Polysaccharides; Chapter 19, 242-264. Sandford, P., ; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-1977-0045.ch019.
Seright, R. and Campbell, A. and Mozley P. 2009. Stability of Partially Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamides at Elevated Temperatures in the Absence of Divalent Cations. SPE-121460-MS International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry https://www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/SPE-121460-MS
Steiner, T. 2002. The hydrogen bond in the solid state. Angewandte Chemie international Edition. 41, 48-76. https://doi.org/10.1080/10.1002/1521-3773(20020104)41:1<48::AID-ANIE48>3.0.CO;2-U.
Xu, L.and Xu, G.; Liu, T.; Chen, Y. and Gong, H. 2013. The comparison of rheological properties of aqueous welan gum and xanthan gum solutions Carbohydrate Polymers. 92 (1): 516-522. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.09.082.
Zhao, D. and Liu, H.; Guo, W.; Qu, L. and Li, C. 2016. Effect of inorganic cations on the rheological properties of polyacrylamide/xanthan gum solution, Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering. 31: 283-292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2016.01.047.