The Phase Behavior of Heavy Oil and Propane Mixtures
- A. Mancilla-Polanco (University of Calgary) | F. F. Schoeggl (University of Calgary) | K. Johnston (University of Calgary) | W. D. L. Richardson (University of Calgary) | H. W. Yarranton (University of Calgary) | S. D. Taylor (Schlumberger Doll Research.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Canada Heavy Oil Technical Conference, 15-16 February, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2017. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 5.2.2 Fluid Modeling, Equations of State, 5.2 Fluid Characterization, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements
- cubic equation of state modeling, phase boundaries, solvent-rich and heavy pitch phase composition, heavy oil and propane, onset and yield
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 379 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 9.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
The phase behavior of heavy oil and propane mixtures was mapped from temperatures ranging from 20 and 180°C and pressures up to 10 MPa. Both vapour-liquid (VL) and liquid-liquid (LL) regions were observed. Saturation pressures (VL boundary) were collected in a Jefri 100 cm3 PVT cell and blind cell apparatus. The propane content at which a propane-rich light phase and a heavy pitch phase formed (LL boundary) were visually determined with a high pressure microscope while titrating propane into the bitumen. High pressure and high temperature yield data were measured using a blind cell apparatus. Here, yield is defined as the mass of the indicated component(s) in the heavy pitch phase divided by the mass of bitumen in the feed. A procedure was developed and used to measure pitch-rich and propane-rich phase compositions in a PVT cell.
Pressure-temperature and pressure-composition phase diagrams were constructed from the saturation pressure and heavy pitch phase onset data. High pressure micrographs demonstrated that, at lower temperatures and propane contents, the heavy pitch phase appeared as glassy particles while at higher yields and temperatures it appeared as liquid phase. Propane-free pitch yields as high as 70 wt% of the bitumen were observed. The propane contents of the pitch phase at 50°C and 2 MPa, 50°C and 5 MPa, and 130°C and 10 MPa (all for a feed of 50 wt% propane) were 22 ±0.4 wt%, 26 ±0.4 wt% and 2 ±1 wt%, respectively.
The ability of a cubic equation of state to model the data was explored. The model with temperature dependent binary interaction parameters (BIP) matched the saturation pressures and the LL boundaries at one pressure. However, the model could not match the effect of pressure on the LL boundary. The model also underpredicted yields at high dilution and could not match the LL phase compositions.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||21|
Agrawal, P., Schoeggl, F. F., Satyro, M. A., Taylor, S. D., and Yarranton, H. W. 2012. Measurements and Modeling of the Phase Behavior of Solvent Diluted Bitumens. Fluid Phase Equilibria 334: 51-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2012.07.025.
Akbarzadeh, K., Alboudwarej, H., Svrcek, W. Y., and Yarranton, H. W. 2005. A Generalized Regular Solution Model for Asphaltene Precipitation from n-Alkane Diluted Heavy Oils and Bitumens. Fluid Phase Equilibria 232 (1-2): 159-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2005.03.029.
Ali, L. H., and Al-Ghannam, K. A. 1981. Investigations into Asphaltenes in Heavy Crude Oils. I. Effect of Temperature on Precipitation by Alkane Solvents. Fuel 60 (11): 1043-1043. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-2361(81)90047-8.
Andersen, S. I., and Birdi, K. S. 1991. Aggregation of Asphaltenes as Determined by Calorimetry. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 142 (2): 497-502. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(91)90079-N.
Andersen. S. I. 1994. Concentration Effects in HPLC-SEC Analysis of Petroleum Asphaltenes. J. Liquid Chromatography 17 (19): 4065-4079. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826079408013600.
Andersen, S. I., Lindeloff, N., and Stenby, E. H. 1998. Investigation of Asphaltene Precipitation at Elevated Temperature. J. Petr. Sci. Technol. 16 (3-4): 323-334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10916469808949786.
Badamchi-Zadeh, A., Yarranton, H. W., Svrcek, W. Y., and Maini, B. B. 2009a. Phase Behavior and Physical Property Measurements for VAPEX Solvents: Part I. Propane and Athabasca Bitumen. JCPT 48 (01): 54-61. PETSOC-09-01-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/09-01-54.
Badamchi-Zadeh, A., Yarranton, H. W., Svrcek, W. Y., and Maini, B. B. 2009b. Phase Behavior and Physical Property Measurements for VAPEX Solvents: Part II. Propane, Carbon Dioxide, and Athabasca Bitumen. JCPT 48 (03): 57-65. PETSOC-09-03-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/09-03-57.
Dini, Y., Becerra, M., and Shaw, J. 2016. Phase Behavior and Thermophysical Properties of Peace River Bitumen + Propane Mixtures from 303 K to 393 K. J. Chem. Eng. Data 61 (8): 2659-2688. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jced.6b00034.
Farouq Ali, S. M. 2013. All You Need is Darcy's Equation to Determine EOR Success or Failure. Presented at the SPE Western Regional & AAPG Pacific Section Meeting 2013 Joint Technical Conference, Monterey, 19-25 April. SPE-165318-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/165318-MS.
Gao, G., Daridon, J., Saint-Guirons, H., Xans, P., and Montel, F. 1992. A Simple Correlation to Evaluate Binary Interaction Parameters of the Peng-Robinson Equation of State: Binary Light Hydrocarbon System. Fluid Phase Equilibria 74: 85-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(92)85054-C.
Hirschberg, A., deJong, L. N. J., Schipper, B. A., and Meijer, J. G. 1984. Influence of Temperature and Pressure on Asphaltene Flocculation. SPE J. 24 (3): 284-293. SPE-11202-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/11202-PA.
Hu, Y., and Guo, T. 2001. Effect of Temperature and Molecular Weight of n-Alkane Precipitants on Asphaltene Precipitation. Fluid Phase Equilibria 192 (1-2): 13-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3812(01)00619-7.
Joshi, N. B., Mullins, O. C., Jamaluddin, A., Creek, J., and McFadden, J. 2001. Asphaltene Precipitation from Live Crude Oil. Energy & Fuels 15 (4): 979-986. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef010047l.
Katz, D. L., and Firoozabadi, A. 1978, Predicting Phase Behavior of Condensate/Crude-Oil System Using Methane Interaction Coefficients. J. Petr. Technol. 30 (11): 1649-1655. SPE-6721-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/6721-PA.
Kriz, P., Stastna, J., and Zanzotto, L. 2008. Glass Transition and Phase Stability in Asphalt Binders. J. Road Material Pavement Design 9 (1): 37-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2008.9690158.
Lee, B. I., and Kesler, M. G. 1975. A Generalized Thermodynamic Correlation Based on Three-Parameter Corresponding States. AIChE J. 21 (3): 510-527. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690210313.
Li, Z., and Firoozabadi, A. 2010. Modeling Asphaltene Precipitation by n-Alkanes from Heavy Oils and Bitumens Using Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State. Energy & Fuels 24 (2): 1106-1113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef9009857.
Mannistu, K. D., Yarranton, H. W., and Masliyah, J. H. 1997. Solubility Modeling of Asphaltenes in Organic Solvents. Energy & Fuels 11 (3): 615-622. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef9601879.
Memarzadeh, A., and Rahnema, H. 2015. Thermodynamic Analysis of Solvent Assisted Steam Injection. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 28-30 September. SPE-178725-STU. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/178725-STU.
Michelsen, M. L. 1982. The Isothermal Flash Problem. Part I. Stability. Fluid Phase Equilibria 9 (1): 1-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(82)85001-2.
Nasr, T. N., Beaulieu, G., Golbeck, H., and Heck, G. 2003. Novel Expanding Solvent-SAGD Process "ES-SAGD". JCPT 42 (01): 13-16. PETSOC-03-01-TN. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/03-01-TN.
Rachford Jr, H. H., and Rice, J. D. 1952. Procedure for Use of Electronic Digital Computers in Calculation Flash Vaporization Hydrocarbon Equilibrium. J. Petr. Technol. 4 (10): 327-328. SPE-952327-G. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/952327-G.
Rastegari, K., Svrcek, W. Y., and Yarranton, H. W. 2004. Kinetics of Asphaltene Flocculation. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 43 (21): 6861-6870. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie049594v.
Sirota, E. B. 2005. Physical Structure of Asphaltenes. Energy & Fuels 19 (4): 1290-1296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef049795b.
Tharanivasan, A., Yarranton, H. W., and Taylor, S. D. 2011. Application of a Regular Solution-Based Model to Asphaltene Precipitation from Live Oils. Energy & Fuels 25 (2): 528-538. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef101076z.
Twu, C. H. 1984. An Internally Consistent Correlation for Predicting the Critical Properties and Molecular Weights of Petroleum and Coal-Tar Liquids. Fluid Phase Equilibria 16 (2): 137-150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(84)85027-X.
Wiehe, I. A., Yarranton, H. W., Akbarzadeh, K., Rahimi, P. M., and Teclemariam, A. 2005. The Paradox of Asphaltene Precipitation with Normal Paraffins. Energy & Fuels 19 (4): 1261-1267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef0496956.
Zou, X., Zhang, X., and Shaw, J. M. 2007. Phase Behavior of Athabasca Vacuum Bottoms + n-Alkane Mixtures. SPE Prod. Operations 22 (2): 265-272. SPE-97661-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97661-PA.