A Well Performance Study of Eagle Ford Shale Gas Wells Integrating Empirical Time-Rate and Analytical Time-Rate-Pressure Analysis
- A. S. Davis (Texas A&M University) | T. A. Blasingame (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, 9-11 February, The Woodlands, Texas, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2016. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 1.6.6 Directional Drilling, 5.6.3 Pressure Transient Testing, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 5.8 Unconventional and Complex Reservoirs, 3 Production and Well Operations, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 5.6 Formation Evaluation & Management, 5.8.2 Shale Gas, 5.8.4 Shale Oil, 2.5 Hydraulic Fracturing, 2 Well completion
- Eagle Ford Shale Gas Wells, Empirical Time-Rate Analysis (DCA), Production Analysis Diagnostic Plots, Production Analysis Workflow, Analytical Time-Rate-Pressure Analysis (RTA)
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 688 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
In this work, our purpose is to create a "performance-based reservoir characterization" using production data (measured rates and pressures) from a selected gas condensate region within the Eagle Ford Shale (S. Texas). We use modern time-rate ("decline curve") analysis and time-rate-pressure ("model-based") analysis methods to analyze/interpret/diagnose gas condensate well production data. We estimate reservoir and completion properties — specifically: formation permeability, fracture-face skin effect, fracture half-length, and fracture conductivity. We correlate these results with known completion variables — specifically: completed lateral length, total proppant, total water used, and type of hydraulic fracturing fluid. We use the time-rate and time-rate-pressure analyses to forecast future production and to estimate ultimate recovery. Finally, we apply pressure transient analysis methods to those cases where the production history contains shut-in periods of sufficient duration to provide resolution in the pressure build-up data to identify reservoir features and qualitatively validate completion effectiveness. It is noted that ONLY surface pressures are available for the wells considered in this study.
We utilize industry-standard software to perform single well rate-time "decline curve" analyses. The traditional "modified-hyperbolic" time-rate model was used as the "basis" relation and the "power-law exponential" time-rate model was used as a check/validation (the power-law exponential model tends to be a more conservative relation for generating forecasts and estimating ultimate recovery). We also utilize industry-standard software to perform single well time-rate-pressure "model-based" analyses --- this methodology is also known as Rate Transient Analysis (RTA). In this work we used the full analytical model for the performance of a Multi-Fracture Horizontal Well (as opposed to a proxy or numerical model). We use Microsoft Excel and a commercial statistical software package to correlate the production analysis results with the measured completion parameters to create "design" relations for well completions — specifically correlations of estimated ultimate recovery with completion variables (completed lateral length, total proppant, total water used, and type of hydraulic fracturing fluid). Finally, we utilize industry-standard software to perform pressure transient analysis on the cases where the quality and relevance of the shut-in pressure data warranted such analyses.
In this work, we "cross-validate" the estimated ultimate recovery results by comparison of the time-rate and time-rate-pressure analysis results The correlation of EUR with completion variables, we propose, is shown to be statistically relevant for almost all combinations of variables, and the correlation relation should be applicable for creating completion designs. The analysis of surface-derived pressure transient data is successfully demonstrated for several cases taken from the gas condensate region of the Eagle Ford Shale (S. Texas). The work we perform in this thesis clearly demonstrates the validity of using empirical (time-rate) and analytical (time-rate-pressure) analysis methods for the purpose of characterizing well performance for wells in the gas condensate region of the Eagle Ford Shale (S. Texas).
|File Size||16 MB||Number of Pages||47|
Aboaba, A. and Cheng, Y. 2010. Estimation of Fracture Properties For a Horizontal Well With Multiple Hydraulic Fractures in Gas Shale. Paper SPE 138524 presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Morgantown, West Virginia, 12-14 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/138524-MS.
Agarwal, R., Gardner, D., Kleinsteiber, S., . 1998. Analyzing Well Production Data Using Combined Type Curve and Decline Curve Analysis Concepts. Paper SPE 49222 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 27-30 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/49222-MS.
Agarwal, R., Gardner, D., Kleinsteiber, S., . 1999. Analyzing Well Production Data Using Combined-Type-Curve and Decline-Curve Analysis Concepts. SPE Res Eval & Eng. 2 (5): 478-486. SPE 57916-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/57916-PA.
Al-Ahmadi, H. A., Almarzooq, A. M. and Wattenbarger, R. A. 2010. Application of Linear Flow Analysis to Shale Gas Wells - Field Cases. Paper SPE 130370 presented at the SPE Unconventional Gas Conference, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 23-25 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/130370-MS.
Anderson, D. and Mattar, L. 2004. Practical Diagnostics Using Production Data and Flowing Pressures. Paper SPE 89939 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 26-29 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89939-MS.
Ansah, J., Knowles, R. S. and Blasingame, T. A. 1996. A Semi-Analytic (p/z) Rate-Time Relation for the Analysis and Prediction of Gas Well Performance. Paper SPE 35268 presented at the SPE Mid-Continent Gas Symposium, Amarillo, Texas, 28-30 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/35268-MS.
Arps, J. J. 1945. Analysis of Decline Curves. Trans. 160 (1): 228-247. SPE 945228. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/945228-G.
Blasingame, T. A., Ilk, D. and Hosseinpour-Zonoozi, N. 2007. Application of the B-Derivative Function to Production Analysis. Paper SPE 107967 presented at the 2007 SPE Rocky Mountain Oil & Gas Technology Symposium, Denver, Colorado, 16-18 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/107967-MS.
Bourdet, D., Ayoub, J. and Pirard, Y. 1989. Use of Pressure Derivative in Well Test Interpretation. SPE Form Eval. 4 (2): 293-302. SPE 12777-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12777-PA.
Callard, J. and Schenewerk, P. 1995. Reservoir Performance History Matching Using Rate/Cumulative Type-Curves. Paper SPE 30793 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 22-25 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30793-MS.
Duong, A. 2011. Rate-Decline Analysis for Fracture-Dominated Shale Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng. 14 (3): SPE-137748-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/137748-PA.
Fetkovich, M. J. 1980. Decline Curve Analysis using Type Curves. J. Pet Tech. 32 (6): 1065-1077. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4629-PA.
Fraim, M. L. and Wattenbarger, R. A. 1987. Gas Reservoir Decline-Curve Analysis Using Type Curves With Real Gas Pseudopressure and Normalized Time. SPE Form Eval. 2 (4): 671-682. SPE 14238-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14238-PA.
Fulford, D. and Blasingame, T.A. 2013. Evaluation of Time-Rate Performance of Shale Wells using the Transient Hyperbolic Relation. Paper SPE 167242 presented at the SPE Unconventional Resources Conference-Canada, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 5-7 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/167242-MS.
Gentry, R. W. and McCray, A. W. 1978. The Effect of Reservoir and Fluid Properties on Production Decline Curves. J. Pet Tech. 30 (9): 1327-1341. SPE 6341-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/6341-PA.
Idorenyin, E., Okouma, V. and Mattar, L. 2011. Analysis of Production Data Using the Beta-Derivative. Paper SPE 149361 presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15-17 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149361-MS.
Ilk, D., Perego, A., Rushing, J., . 2008. Integrating Multiple Production Analysis Techniques To Assess Tight Gas Sand Reserves: Defining a New Paradigm for Industry Best Practices. Paper SPE 114947 presented at the CIPC/SPE Gas Technology Symposium 2008 Joint Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 16-19 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/114947-MS.
Ilk, D., Anderson, D., Stotts, G., . 2010. Production Data Analysis--Challenges, Pitfalls, Diagnostics. SPE Res Eval & Eng. 13 (3): 538-552. SPE 102048. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102048-PA.
Ilk, D., Jenkins, C. D. and Blasingame, T. A. 2011a. Production Analysis in Unconventional Reservoirs - Diagnostics, Challenges, and Methodologies. Paper SPE 144376 presented at the SPE North American Unconventional Gas Conference and Exhibition, The Woodlands, 14-16 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/144376-MS.
Ilk, D., Okouma, V. and Blasingame, T. A. 2011b. Characterization of Well Performance in Unconventional Reservoirs using Production Data Diagnostics. Paper SPE 147604 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 30 October - 2 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147604-MS.
Johnson, R. and Bollens, A. 1927. The Loss Ratio Method of Extrapolating Oil Well Decline Curves. Trans. 77 (1): 771-778. SPE 927771. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/927771-G.
Kabir, C. and Izgec, B. 2006. Diagnosis of Reservoir Behavior from Measured Pressure/Rate Data. Paper SPE 100384 presented at the SPE Gas Technology Symposium, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15-17 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/100384-MS.
Lewis, J. and Beal, C. 1918. Some New Methods for Estimating the Future Production of Oil Wells. Trans. 59 (1): 492-525. SPE 918492-G. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/918492-G.
Maley, S. 1985. The Use of Conventional Decline Curve Analysis in Tight Gas Well Applications. Paper SPE 13898 presented at the SPE/DOE 1985 Low Permeability Gas Reservoirs, Denver, Colorado, May 19-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13898-MS.
Mattar, L. and McNeil, R. 1998. The "Flowing"Gas Material Balance. The Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology. 37 (02): 52-55. PETSOC 98-02-06. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/98-02-06.
Palacio, J. and Blasingame, T. A. 1993. Decline Curve Analysis Using Type Curves: Analysis of Gas Well Production Data. Paper SPE 25909 presented at the SPE Joint Rocky Mountain and Low Permeability Symposium, Denver, Colorado, 12-13 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/25909-MS.
Rushing, J., Perego, A., Sullivan, R., . 2007. Estimating Reserves in Tight Gas Sands at HP/HT Reservoir Conditions: Use and Misuse of an Arps Decline Curve Methodology. Paper SPE 109625 presented at the 2007 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, 11&-14 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/109625-MS.
Valkó, P. 2009. Assigning Value to Stimulation in the Barnett Shale: A Simultaneous Analysis of 7000 Plus Production Histories and Well Completion Records. Paper SPE 119369 presented at the 2009 SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 19-21 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119369-MS.