Perforating the Largest Deepwater Wells in Brazil - Minimizing Shock Loads
- Carlos Erik Baumann (Schlumberger) | Raphael Pereira Scudino (Schlumberger) | Moises Enrique Smart (Schlumberger) | Marcos Jun Tsuchie (Petrobras) | Eduardo Schnitzler (Petrobras) | Roger Savoldi Roman (Petrobras)
- Document ID
- Offshore Technology Conference
- Offshore Technology Conference Brasil, 29-31 October, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2019. Offshore Technology Conference
- Simulation, Perforating, Shock, deepwater, Gunshock
- 5 in the last 30 days
- 103 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
Perforating the extremely large deepwater wells in the Santos Basin fields, offshore Brazil, is done in a single-trip, shoot-and-pull operation, using 7.0-in. guns loaded with ultra-deep penetrating charges, which produce 65-in. of penetration depth per API RP 19B. These wells have 9-5/8-in. and 9-7/8-in. production casing with gross perforated lengths sometimes exceeding 600-m, and bottom hole pressures larger than 8,000-psi, in some cases reaching 13,500-psi. Perforating these wells with 7.0-in guns is very challenging because of the large downhole loads acting on the tubing string and on the drillship. To evaluate gunshock overloading risks, we utilize a simulation model to predict gunshock loads. This simulation model helps to assess the maximum loads for different perforating scenarios, and helps to devise strategies to reduce the peak tension on the tubing string and drillship to safe levels.
Perforating shock loads are generated by the detonation of the guns and by the associated pressure waves in the completion fluid, such pressure waves act on the guns, tools, and tubing string. Shock loads can pose a serious risk of parting the tubing string and/or damaging the drillship's hoisting equipment. A fully coupled fluid-structure simulation model is used to predict perforating shock loads. Before every perforating job, the operator evaluates the peak transient loads on the tubing string and heave compensator, and decides on the best strategy to prevent gunshock-related damage.
Many drillship operators believe that large-size gunstrings can damage the heave compensation system. Often, afraid of damaging the heave compensators, drillship operators opt for disabling the heave compensation system when perforating, and this is what can create unfavorable conditions that can lead to extremely high loads on the tubing-string. Computer simulation of the perforating event with models having varying degrees of heave compensation show the need for heave compensation to reduce the peak tension load on the tubing-string. Actual drillship measurements and simulation results of transient hook-load are presented side-by-side, as well as sensitivity studies of the transient tubing-load dependence on the heave compensator's load-movement relationship. Actual hook-load measurements from one perforating job done with heave compensation and one without heave compensation show the need to use heave compensation to reduce the peak tension load on the tubing-string.
Gunshock loading simulations are described in detail, using actual jobs data to analyze the transient shock load on the tubing string and on the drillship. Detailed comparisons between simulated and measured peak drillship hook loads are presented, as well as the tubing axial load dependence on the heave compensator's load-movement relationship. This information will help operators to decide on the strategy to avoid having non-productive time because of shock related equipment damage.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||14|
Baumann, C.E. and Oden, J. T. 1999a. A Discontinuous hp Finite Element Method for the Solution of the Euler and Navier-Stokes Equations. Int. Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 31 (1): 79–95. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0363(19990915)31:1<79::AID-FLD956>3.0.CO;2-C.
Baumann, C. E. and Oden, J. T. 1999b. A Discontinuous hp Galerkin Method for Convection-Diffusion Problems. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 175: 311–341. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-7825(98)00359-4
Baumann, C. E. and Oden, J. T. 2000. An Adaptive-Order Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Solution of the Euler Equations of Gas Dynamics. Int. Journal for Num. Methods in Eng. 47: 61–73. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0207(20000110/30)47:1/3<61::AID-NME761>3.0.CO;2-D.
Baumann, C. E., Bustillos, E. P., Guerra, J. P., William, A., and Williams, H. A. R. 2011a. Reduction of Perforating Gunshock Loads. Presented at the Brasil Offshore Conference and Exhibition, Macae, Brazil, 14-17 June, 2011. SPE-143816-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/143816-MS.
Baumann, C., Williams, H., Korf, T., and Pourciau, R. 2011b. Perforating High-Pressure Deepwater Wells in the Gulf of Mexico. Presented at the 2011 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, USA, 30 October–2 November. SPE-146809-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/146809-MS.
Baumann, C. E., Bustillos, E. P., William, A., & Williams, H. A. R. (2011c). Reduction of Perforating Gunshock Loads. Society of Petroleum Engineers. SPE-143816-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/143816-MS
Baumann, C. E., Bustillos, E. P., Guerra, J. P., William, A., and Williams, H.A.R. 2012a. Reduction of Perforating Gunshock Loads. SPE Drill & Compl 27 (1): 65–74. SPE-143816-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/143816-PA.
Baumann, C., Dutertre, A., Khaira, K., Williams, H., Mohamed, H.N.H. 2012b. Risk Minimization when Perforating with Automatic Gun Release Systems. Presented at the SPETT 2012 Energy Conference and Exhibition, Port of Spain, Trinidad, 11-13 June, 2012. SPE 156967-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/156967-MS.
Baumann, C., Lazaro, A., Valdivia, P., Williams, H., Stecchini, P. 2013a. Perforating Gunshock Loads—Prediction and Mitigation. Presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 5-7 March, 2013. SPE-163549-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/163549-MS.
Baumann, C., Barnard, K., Anbao, L., Williams, H., Fuxiang, Z., Xiangtong, Y., Jianxin, P. 2013b. Prediction and Reduction of Perforating Gunshock Loads. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Beijing, China, 26-28 March. IPTC-16744-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-16744-MS.
Baumann, C. and Brinsden, M. 2014. Perforating Gunshock Loads: Simulation and Optimization in 2014. Presented at the IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology Conference and Exhibition, Bangkok, Thailand, 25–27 August, 2014. SPE-170552-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/170552-MS
Baumann, C., Smart, M.E., Stulb, C., Brinsden, M., Gavric, Z., and Le, C.V. 2016. Perforating Large High-Pressure Wells with Low-Shock and Low-Debris Gun Systems. Presented at the SPE International Conference and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 24–26 Feb 2016. SPE-179002-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/179002-MS
Brinsden, M., Boock, A., and Baumann, C. 2014. Perforating Gunshock Loads: Simulation Capabilities and Applications. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 10–12 December, 2014. IPTC-17819-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-17819-MS
Brinsden, M., Gavric, Z., Le, C., Baumann, C., Smart, M., & Stulb, C., 2016. Perforating the Largest High-Pressure Wells in the Gulf of Mexico. Presented at the Offshore Technology Conference Asia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 22–25 March, 2016. OTC-26644-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.4043/26644-MS.
Burman, J., Schoener-Scott, M., Lee, C., and Suire, D. 2011. Designing Completions after Predicting Wellbore Dynamic-Shock Loads during Perforating. Presented at the Brasil Offshore Conference and Exhibition, Macae, Brazil, 14–17 June, 2011. SPE-143787-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/143787-MS.
Canal, A.C., Miletto, P., Schoener-Scott, M.F., Medeiros, J., Barlow, D. 2010. Predicting Pressure Behavior and Dynamic Shock Loads on Completion Hardware During Perforating. Presented at the 2010 Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 3–6 May. OTC-21059-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.4043/21059-MS.
Gilliat, J., Bale, D., Satti R., Li, C., and Howard, J. 2014. The Importance of Pre-Job Shock Modelling as a Risk Mitigation Tool in TCP Operations. Presented at the SPE Drilling and Completions Conference, Galveston, Texas, USA, 10-11 September. SPE-170260-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/170260-MS.
Giunta, R., Le, C., Schoener-Scott, M., Anderson, R., Glass, J. 2012. Modeling Dynamic Shock Loads for High-Pressure / Deep-Water Tubing-Conveyed Perforating Operations in the Gulf of Mexico. Presented at the SPE Deepwater Drilling and Completions Conference, Galveston, Texas, USA, 20–21 June, 2012. SPE-153439-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/153439-MS.
Sanders, W., Baumann, C. E., Williams, H. A. R., de Moraes, F. D., Shipley, J., Bethke, M. E., & Ogier, S., 2011. Efficient Perforation of High-Pressure Deepwater Wells. Presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 2–5 May. OTC-21758-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.4043/21758-MS
Schatz, J.F., Folse, K.C., and Dupont, R. 2004. High-Speed Pressure and Accelerometer Measurements Characterize Dynamic Behavior during Perforating Events in Deepwater Gulf of Mexico. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, USA, 26–29 September. SPE-90042-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/90042-MS.
Schnitzler, E., Silva Filho, D. A., Marques, F. H., Delbim, F. K., Vello, K. L., Goncalez, L. F., and Fonseca, T. C. 2015. Road to Success and Lessons Learned in Intelligent Completion Installations at the Santos Basin Pre-salt Cluster, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 28-30 September, Houston, Texas, USA. SPE 174725-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/174725-MS
Schnitzler, E., Fernandes, A. A., da Cunha, C. B., de Oliveira, F. S., Vanni, G. S., Grandi, R. F.de Jesus, R. A., 2017. Completion Considerations for MPD Deepwater Offshore Wells. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/185299-MS
Schnitzler, E., Alonso Fernandes, A., Savoldi Roman, R., Pereira da Silva, P. H., Medina Ascaneo, W., Storani de Almeida, R., & Bolfarini Harami, G., 2018. Using MPD Techniques for Lower Completion Replacement: Unleashing a Powerful New Solution for Challenging Workover Interventions. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/191401-MS
Wilson, A. 2012. Efficient Perforation of High-Pressure Deepwater Wells. Society of Petroleum Engineers. J Pet Technol 64: 94–96. SPE-0512-0094-JPT. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/0512-0094-JPT