Wave and Circulation Numerical Modeling for Breakwater Rehabilitation Project at Tinian Harbor, North Marianna Islands
- Lihwa Lin (US Army Engineer Research and Development Center) | Zeki Demirbilek (US Army Engineer Research and Development Center) | Jessica H. Podoski (US Army Corps of Engineers) | Thomas D. Smith (US Army Corps of Engineers)
- Document ID
- International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers
- The 28th International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, 10-15 June, Sapporo, Japan
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2018. International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers
- Tinian Harbor, breakwater rehabilitation, wave and circulation modeling
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The long breakwater of Tinian Harbor, located at the southwest shore of Tinian of the Northern Mariana Islands in the western Pacific region, is deteriorating. The Harbor has been exposed to consistent wind sea, distant swell, and frequent tropical storm waves. Typical wind wave activities in combination with aging condition of the breakwater have caused more transmitted waves along and around the harbor to be challenging for service and commercial vessel transits to harbor and operations at wharf and piers. Infrastructure modifications including the breakwater rehabilitation with and without extension of the southeast segment were investigated by numerical modeling. Model results indicated the restoration of the long breakwater to the original design would provide effective and sufficient protection to the harbor.
Tinian Harbor is located within a natural embayment on the southwest coast of Tinian (Figure 1), a coral limestone island of 10.5-mi long and 5-mi wide, approximately 14 mi south-southwest of Saipan and 120 mi north-northeast of Guam, in the western Pacific. Tinian together with Saipan and Guam are three principal islands of the US Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), approximately 3,800 mi west of Hawaii. The harbor was constructed in 1944-1945 during WWII. The entrance channel, about 2,600-ft long and 530-ft wide, has been maintained to a depth of about 30 ft Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW). The wharf berthing zone and harbor turning basin were routinely dredged to depths of 28 to 30 ft MLLW.
Tinian harbor consists of a 2,000-ft long North Wharf with four berthing areas and 2,000-ft long West Wharf with two finger piers (Figure 2). The harbor was protected by a long breakwater constructed on the reef ridge that fronts the coastline. The northern segment of the breakwater, approximately 1,200-ft long, was presently in ruins. The southeast segment, nearly 3,600-ft long, was significantly degraded and presently not effective for proper protection of the harbor.
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