Advanced Formation Testing Using a Wireline-Deployed Formation Testing Tool to Characterize In-Situ Stress Parameters in a Depleted Niagaran Pinnacle Reef Carbonate Reservoir
- S. Raziperchikolaee (Battelle Memorial Institute) | M. Kelley (Battelle Memorial Institute) | D. Moronkeji (Baker Hughes, a GE company) | H. Xu (Baker Hughes, a GE company) | B. Guillermo (Baker Hughes, a GE company) | R. Pardini (Core Energy/LLC)
- Document ID
- American Rock Mechanics Association
- 53rd U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, 23-26 June, New York City, New York
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2019. American Rock Mechanics Association
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- 59 since 2007
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ABSTRACT: Proper planning and design of a CO2 storage project in a depleted oil field requires that key geomechanical parameters of the reservoir and caprock formations are characterized, namely minimum horizontal stress (Shmin) magnitude and orientation. In this study, a wireline formation testing tool (WFT) configured with a straddle packer with a 1-meter long spacing, was used to conduct multiple hydraulic fracture injection (micro-frac) tests to determine Shmin magnitude during a single deployment of the tool. Acoustic image log was used to determine the orientation of Shmin and maximum horizontal stress (SHmax). The results of the micro-frac tests at different depths in the reservoir and overlying caprock, and implications for using the depleted reservoirs for future CO2 storage are discussed. Also, an analysis of how minimum horizontal stress (and corresponding fracture pressure) increases during the process of filling the reservoir with CO2 was performed to estimate actual fracture pressure during the reservoir filling process. We refer to this as “dynamic” fracture pressure.
Key hydraulic and geomechanical parameters of reservoir and caprock formations are needed for proper planning and design of a CO2 storage project. Stress data is needed to define the present-day stress profile in the reservoir, to support coupled fluid-flow and geomechanical modeling, and to assess induced fracturing potential in the reservoir and overlying caprocks. This paper describes the use of a wireline-deployed formation testing tool (WFT) to determine key in-situ stress parameters for a depleted pinnacle reef reservoir in northern Michigan.
Maximum horizontal stress orientation was determined from image logs of the induced fractures created by microfrac testing. WFTs are well suited because of the short straddle-packer spacing for characterizing stress distribution in rocks that have a high degree of vertical variability such as the carbonate pinnacle reefs which have undergone various amounts of dolomitization.
Stress data show that primary production significantly lowered the Shmin and the corresponding fracture pressure (FIP) in the reservoir. Because FIP is the threshold used to set the limit on injection pressure for wells regulated under the Underground Injection Control program, the amount of CO2 that can be stored in a depleted reservoir may be limited if the regulators use the lowered fracture pressure at the end of primary production to set the limit on injection pressure. Analysis of how Shmin increases during the process of filling the reservoir with CO2, due to the poro-elastic effect of injection, is presented and suggests a “dynamic fracture pressure” that will not overly constrain the amount of CO2 that can be injected as an alternative to a fixed FIP limit. This experience is applicable to all depleted reservoirs considered for CO2 storage.
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