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Keywords: ester
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Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 14th World Petroleum Congress, May 29–June 1, 1994
Paper Number: WPC-26216
... mobility of the lubricant in soil also favours rapid degradation. These requirements can be met only by vegetable or animal oils and selected organic esters. In western Europe rape seed oil raffinates are used for base oils. In the beginning it was enthusiastically considered that all industrial...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 13th World Petroleum Congress, October 20–25, 1991
Paper Number: WPC-24221
... (HC), polyalpholefins (PAO) and esters. In this paper we describe how HC base oils are manufactured, how their physical and chemical properties compare with PA0 in particular, and how both products perform in multigrade formulations. From a range of bench and engine tests covering oxidation stability...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 11th World Petroleum Congress, August 28–September 2, 1983
Paper Number: WPC-20338
... Abstract. Shortage and cost of fuels has stimulated fuel efficient automotive engine and transmission lubricant development. Lower viscosity base oils and friction reducing additives have successfully been used to formulate such oils. Synthetic hydrocarbons, esters and hydrotreated mineral...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 10th World Petroleum Congress, September 9–14, 1979
Paper Number: WPC-18326
... Abstract. Over the past thirty years, synthetic lubricants have found increasing application to meet severe and special lubricating needs. A review of the various synthetic types shows that esters, polyglycols and synthesized hydrocarbons predominate for large-scale usage, although several...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 8th World Petroleum Congress, June 13–18, 1971
Paper Number: WPC-14412
... SST lubricants stipulated high thermal and oxidative stability coupled with low deposition tendency and volatility in bearing rig tests extending to 572°F (300°C), together with very high load-carrying capacity at 392°F (200°C). An ester basestock was developed to meet these requirements, whilst a...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 6th World Petroleum Congress, June 19–26, 1963
Paper Number: WPC-10516
... Abstract. Data are given on the synthesis of additives of the type of organic phosphorus compounds. Certain problems related to the mechanism of their activity with respect to frictional wear are considered. A number of dithiophosphate esters of the structure CCi,(CH,), SP(S)(OR), have been...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 5th World Petroleum Congress, May 30–June 5, 1959
Paper Number: WPC-8315
... oxidation oxidation process higher aliphatic alcohol molecule alcohol direct oxidation secondary alcohol carbon atom aliphatic alcohol paraffinic hydrocarbon flow assurance boric acid composition oxygen synthesis concentration ester hydrocarbon Compound Section IV-Paper 15 SYNTHESIS OF...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 5th World Petroleum Congress, May 30–June 5, 1959
Paper Number: WPC-8317
..., plastics, and plasticizers. Oxidation is the reaction involved in converting alkyl aromatics to acids. Both element catalyst carboxylic acid alkyl aromatic xylene raw material reaction new process phthalic anhydride oxidation conversion ester Air Oxidation terephthalic acid patent 2...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 5th World Petroleum Congress, May 30–June 5, 1959
Paper Number: WPC-8610
... adjustments in the laboratories the epoxies were being widely used in refinery protection by 1954. These paints are available in two forms, the ester and the cold-cured types. The epoxy esters are reaction products of epoxy resins with drying oil fatty acids, and are used in mild refinery environments. The...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 5th World Petroleum Congress, May 30–June 5, 1959
Paper Number: WPC-8913
... ABSTRACT. Conventional ester and petroleum hydrocarbon-based lubricants, depending primarily on inhibitors for resistance to oxidation, are very sensitive to radiation damage. The antioxidant, acting as a radical scavenger, is completely deactivated even in absence of oxygen at radiation...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 4th World Petroleum Congress, June 6–15, 1955
Paper Number: WPC-6405
... dependent upon chain length, but the dependence of viscosity upon pressure is almost independent of the degree of polymerization within the region investigated. The pressure dependence of viscosity increases greatly with the chain length for esters of ortho-silicic acid in an analogous manner as was found...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 4th World Petroleum Congress, June 6–15, 1955
Paper Number: WPC-6324
... déterminée (8-10 atm h IZOQC). GrÛce e, l'emploi de catalyseurs constitués par un mélan, ge de composés carhonyliques préalablement formés de cobalt, on a pu opérer Ci basse température pour lo sUn, thèsr des esters à partir des olPpn, es, de l'oq/rle de carbone et des alcools. Dans ces conditions, il a été...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 3rd World Petroleum Congress, May 28–June 6, 1951
Paper Number: WPC-4401
... vvnm nietins nivnpt- man ecnyiene ana primary nethanol, are used, the ester ith asymmetric olefins (e.g. f esters (e.g. n. butyrate and valence of the former) are higher than methanol, which drogenatable, the secondary)-synthesis) increase, because thesis reaction is faster than tion.. secondary...

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