Although there was general interest in the worldwide review of the subject, most interest was generated by Dr. SURGUCHEV's comments regarding the exploitation of oil shales by the Galoter and Kiviter technologies in Estonia.

Dr. SURGUCHEV explained the Galoter process as having a hot carrier in a rotating kiln similar to the Tosco process. The unit in Estonia was of commercial scale and could handle shale up to one-half inch in size. Unlike the Union oil project, it did not have an upgrader tied to the recovery unit. Since there is no upgrader at the Estonia plant, the hydrocarbon is of poor quality and has limited use; it is used primarily as a fuel oil. F. L. HARTLEY (USA) asked if higher quality products were produced from the Estonia crude shale oil. The material balance shown on the slide by Dr SURGUCHEV indicated that gases, some gasoline and a preponderence of fuel oil were the end use products from the shale oil.

J. BURGER (France) requested information on quantitative yields from the Galoter and Kiviter processes. Dr. Surguchev replied that 500 000 t/yr of crude product was produced in Estonia but he had no detailed breakdown on the product yields. R. G.

VAWTER (USA) was informed that the capacity of the largest Estonian shale oil plant was 1500 t/d or about 500000t/yr. Mr. ADAMS (USA) asked if there was any upgrading currently of shale oils and specifically if there is any hydrotreating. The answer was that there is no upgrading of the oil other than the partial upgrading achieved in the retorting process initially.

M. M. KHOLIEF (Egypt) asked if it were possible to use oil shales for the production of cement after removal of the hydrocarbon and using some of the oil for process heating. Dr. SURGUCHEV had no knowledge of that particular application of oil shales but did indicate that some was being used for the production of asphalts. B. VAN OORT (UK) was interested to know about the future expansion plans for the shale oil industry in the USSR. Dr. SUR- GUCHEV explained that there were definite plans for expansion but he had no specific data regarding timing or capacity increases.

Dr. SURGUCHEV was asked by J. JOVANOVIC (Yugoslavia) to explain the main difference between the quality of oils produced from mining and in situ processes. It was explained that the oils are basically the same if they are recovered by surface or underground retorting systems but there is more nitrogen in in situ produced oils.

Two questions, one from Mr. ADAMS (USA) and one from J. BURGER (France) concerned the environmental aspects of producing oils from shales in the USSR. Mr. ADAMS wanted to know what precautions were taken over the long period to guard against the car

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