This symposium afforded the most comprehensive discussion yet put forward on the subject of Hydrogenation. It was particularly fortunate that the chair was taken by Dr. F. Bergius, whose pioneering work in this direction is too well known to emphasise. Dr. Bergius, in his introductory address, surveys his own work from the year 1910 and discusses the general development of high-pressure work and the first experiments on the hydrogenation of coal that followed preliminary inves. tigations of the origin of this substance from the decom position of cellulose. In the course of these studies it was shown that the younger coals were readily liquefied, but that the anthracites were impossible to hydrogenate. He discusses the fate of the various components of coal substance and proceeds to describe the develop ment of the technical plant installed at Rheinau. The treatment of coal in the presence of catalysts followed on after the conclusion of his own experimental work in 1927, and of course this subsequent work laid the foundations of the hydrogenation process as carried out by the I. G. Dr. M. Pier takes up the story from the standpoint of the work of the I. G. and describes in considerable detail the catalysis of the hydrogenation of coal and of heavy petroleum. Another pioneer in the development of hydrogenation, Dr. W. R. Ormandy, describes, in collaboration with Dr. J. Burns, the experimental units ranging from a small continuous laboratory scale plant capable of dealing with 20 ml. an hour, and with a larger unit ten times that capacity, leading up to a still larger plant capable of 5 litres catalyst capacity, and which would bring about complete conversion of a raw material to light spirit in one continuous operation. Results in these units are put forward and treatments of lowtemperature and high-temperature tars are'discussed. Two papers are put forward by the technical staff of the Standard Oil Development Co. of New Jersey under the joint authorship, of R. T. Haslam, R. P. Russell and W. C. Asbury. The first of these deals with the pro perties of hydrogenated motor lubricating oils and discusses the viscosity index, consumption, tendency to form sludge, oiliness and distribution of typical hydrogenated material. In brief, the results set forth show that hydrogenated oils give markedly better consumption, no evidence of sludge formation, elimination of difficulties due to sticking piston rings and increased gasoline mileage due to the maintenance of a better piston seal. Incidentally, superior value for viscosity index is obtained. The second paper by the same authors puts forward a comparison of cracking and hydrogenation as methods of producing gasoline.

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