Abstract

Chinese oil & gas storage and transportation has developed fast since 2000 and has already formed a basic pipeline network and storage system which has provided many benefits. In recent years, the new technologies and research results of Chinese oil & gas storage and transportation industry has multiplied. This paper summarizes the new research developments and technologies of oil & gas storage and transportation in China systematically and predicts further Chinese technology development trends.

Introduction

The history of the Chinese oil and gas storage and transportation industry can be dated back to 200 years BC, when were Qin and Han dynasties. With the development of the modern oil industry from the mid-19th century, the transportation has developed in a variety of ways, such as road, railway, waterway and pipelines. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the Chinese oil and gas storage and transportation industry developed fast and the technology has gone through three stages of self-reliance, re-innovation and independent innovation(1).

As shown in figure 1. The first stage was from the early 1950s to 1980s. At that time, self-reliance was the only choice. The discovery of large oil fields, such as Daqing, Shengli and Yumen oil field drove large-scale construction of pipelines. Up until 1980, China built 6557km of crude oil pipelines, 1114km of product pipelines and 2792km of gas pipelines. In 1975, China built its first 5 × 104m3 floating roof tank. The second stage was from the mid-1980s to the late 1990s. Since the third plenary session of the 11th central committee of Chinese communist party, by the guidance of reform and opening policy, foreign technologies were introduced, absorbed and re-innovated. Chinese oil and gas pipeline construction and management entered a rapid phase of development. In 1986, the newly-built Dong Huang double pipeline was the first joint designed pipeline and was also the first long distance crude oil pipeline which realized closed operation and automatic management. At the end of 2000, China had built 7697km of crude oil pipelines, 2143km of product pipelines and 8764km of gas pipelines. In 1986, by introducing a set of technology from Janpan, China built two of 10 × 104m3 floating roof tanks. Since the start of 21st century, Chinese oil and gas storage and transportation industry had entered the third stage and began to implement the development strategy of independent innovation in the field of design, construction, operation, and management. In 2002, the Lanchengyu product pipeline was the first product pipeline of long distance (1250km), large diameter, high pressure, closed operation and batch transportation. In 2004, the West- East Gas Pipeline was China's first independent designed and constructed world-class pipeline, which also marked that China's pipeline construction ranked top in the world. Meanwhile, with the development of Chinese owned technology, many international pipelines were built. In 2005, the China-Kazakhstan crude oil pipeline's commission was China's first step into transnational pipelines. Up until 2010, China had built 2.2×104 km of crude oil pipeline, 1.8× 104 km of product pipeline and 3.1×104 km of gas pipeline. The initial pipeline network formed. For storage, double floating roof tanks (15×104m3) and the first batch of strategic petroleum reserves (SPR) were built.

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