Heavy Residue Hydroconversion (HRH) is developed and designed to convert any type of heavy residual oil as well as extra heavy crude oil. This technology is based on nano catalyst and having this new concept, all problems related to asphaltene micelles and choking of catalyst pores are solved. Chemical structure of this catalyst enables HRH to utilize any amount of sulfur and reduce it at least 60 % and also any amount of heavy metals and convert almost all heavy metals to metal oxides as by product. Conversion of HRH process is high (up to 95%) and it can upgrade feedstock from less than 5 API to more than 34 API with more than 100 vol% yield. The HRH process includes catalyst regeneration unit for recycling up to 95 % of spent catalyst. This unit boosts the economy of HRH process and due to nature of catalyst, this process do not need any sophisticated processing for catalyst preparation. Metal compound precursors are raw materials for HRH process so this plant is self-sufficient with minimum dependence to sophisticated chemical supply. It makes HRH an attractive process for wellhead application in remote areas. Light gases produced in this process are useable as feedstock of its hydrogen plant. HRH also produces steam; these two by products make HRH more attractive for wellhead applications. Beside wellhead applications, this technology is suitable for refinery application. New residue free refinery schemes are developed based on HRH. This technology is also suitable for revamping existing refineries. Some real cases are developed by utilizing HRH and the results indicating higher added value. HRH has developed in different capacities. It is investigated in pilot scale, 200 bbl/d demo plant and a full scale 10,000 bbl/d plant was designed and is under construction in Iran. Now another 180'000 bbl/d extra heavy crude refinery is being designed in Iran. Promising economic prospects of HRH and its flexibility to feed contaminants like sulfur, heavy metals and asphaltene make HRH as a new alternative for wellhead application, new residue free refinery designs and also revamping existing conventional refineries. References: 1-S.N.Khadzhiev; J'zarkesh; K.M.Kadiev; R.Hashemi; V.K.Mezhidov; S.K.Masoudian; ‘Process for hydroconverting of a heavyhydrocarbonaceous feedstock’ United States Patent 20070045156 2-J. Zarkesh S. Khadziev R. Hashemi H. Kadiev G. Rhodey ‘A New Concept to Maximize Heavy Hydrocarbon Upgrading’ NCUT, 4th Upgrading and Refining of Heavy Oil, Bitumen, and Synthetic Crude Conference Edmonton September 25-27,2006

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