Abstract.

Eco-terrorism is an international problem that has occurred fairly recently and it is growing rapidly. Its specific elements include victimization of innocent people in the name of the environment.

There are several loosely connected groups and individuals responsible for eco-terrorism. The ideology is strongly pro-nature and anti-civilization. The nature of the criminal acts cause them to be difficult and expensive to investigate and law enforcement agencies have had only limited success. In spite of these problems there are a number of responses that can be undertaken by governments, law enforcement and industry in order to recognize the extent of the problem, initiate actions to deter the offences and prepare for a criminal attack. murders which occur around Halloween. ELF has declared the week before Halloween as

INTRODUCTION

"the seven nights of Earth".

In 1997 ELF took credit for an arson This paper looks at the concerns of eco- attack in Vail, Colorado which caused $12 terrorist activities against resource industries. million in damage. Several fires destroyed The first section discusses the nature of the three buildings and damaged four chairlifts. groups that tend to foster eco-terrorist Responsibility was claimed by ELF to protect activities. The paper then looks at the nature lynx reintroduction into Colorado. of eco-terrorists including their ideologies. David Foreman was originally a member The third and fourth sections discuss the of the Sierra Club but moved to Earth First and repercussions of these terrorist activities and then ELF as the previous groups did not meet problems in investigation and prosecution. his beliefs. He has been convicted of The conclusion recommends positive conspiracy to sabotage a nuclear power plant responses on the part of governments, law in the U.S. enforcement and industry to combat these In Canada eco-terrorism goes back to the crimes. bombing of the Toronto Litton Systems plant in the early 1980's and the subsequent arrest of THE GROUPS the "Squamish Five" in British Columbia who were acting under the banner of Direct Action.

Eco-terrorism first became a significant Between 1996 and1998 there were 160 issue around 1980. Actions included arsons, incidents of bombing and sabotage of oil and sabotage and bombings centered in the U.S., gas and forestry facilities in Alberta's South Canada and England. In 1992 the Earth Peace Country with single occurrence losses of Liberation Front (ELF) was formed in up to $5 million. In the U.S. in recent years Brighton, England as a breakaway from the there is an estimate of 100 incidents with a less militant Earth First. The Animal total cost of $42.8 million.

Liberation Front (ALF) and the ELF declared an alliance in 1997. That same year the Unabomber, Theodore Kaczynski, sent a letter THE NATURE OF ECO-TERRORISM to

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