Abstract.

Campos Basin exploration began in 1968, and the first commercial discovery, Garoupa, was hit in 1974. However production activity actually began in August 1977, at the second-discovered Enchova field, in 120m Water Depth (WD). There, a new concept, for Petrobras, was introduced, the Early Production System (EPS). After the installation of the first EPS in Enchova, several others were installed, relocated and demobilized. In 1985, the first deepwater production system in Campos Basin was installed in Marimbá Field, in WD ranging from 350 to 650m. The challenges of deepwaters (400m1,000m) in Brazil had to be faced once their overcoming were the only alternative to reach production levels compatible to the Company needs as well as to attend the required fields development pace. To achieve the technological level that allowed Petrobras to develop the deep and ultra-deep fields, a long path has been tracked. This paper describes the main driver forces to exploit deep and ultra-deepwaters fields and the experience that Petrobras has acquired along more than 15 years of deepwater operations; it also shows its main current and planned deepwater programs as well as the next technological steps to be taken to cost- effectively produce in depths down to 3,000m: multilateral, extended reach and design wells, artificial lift, mitigation of hydrate and wax deposition in subsea pipelines, new subsea equipment, development of new risers systems and stationary production units with new mooring systems are some of the key technological issues that are addressed.

INTRODUCTION

currently strongly engaged in an exploratory effort with five DP rigs in operation in WD ranging The total Brazilian reserves of oil and gas from 1,800 to 3,000 meters. equivalent reached 17.0 billion boe at the end of 1998. Of this, the oil reserves were distributed as CAMPOS BASIN PRODUCTION follows: onshore, 13%; in shallow waters, below EVOLUTION 400m, 13%; and deepwaters, between 400 and 1,000m, 30%. The remaining 44% were in ultra- Campos Basin, the main petroleum province in deepwaters. In short, the current Brazil oil and gas Brazil, lies offshore Rio de Janeiro state, on the equivalent reserves in deep and ultra-deepwater southeast region of the country. Its area covers stand for 74% of the total. 100,000 sq km (38,600 sq mi) from shore to 3,400m (11,152ft) water depth. At the end of 1999, Petrobras reached an oil peak daily production of 1,245,557 bopd, with the Basin exploration began in 1968, and the first following distribution: onshore, 20%, shallow commercial discovery, Garoupa field, was hit in waters, 25% and deepwaters, 55%. This 1974 through the well RJS-9A. But production production is not enoug

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