Abstract.

Best modern environmental practice is sustainable development or use. While nonrenewable resources are said to be non-sustainable, associated species, ecosystem components including air, water, land and biodiversity processes of each development area are subject to sustainable management practices. These are developed through Environmental Management Plans (EMP) for each site.

Waste management of all types is essential, as waste can affect all aspects of the environment now and in the future. Produced water and atmospheric emissions are subsets of waste management.

Rehabilitation is an integral aspect of modern operations having developed from greening of the site to re-establishing self-sustaining native ecosystems.

Education of the workforce, instrumentalities and local communities is another integral and critical aspect of best modern environmental practice.

Historic, actual or potential problems are planned for and dealt with on a priority basis.

Responsibility and due diligence requires remediation of historical contamination often legitimate at the time of occurrence. Actual and potential issues are determined by ongoing monitoring and auditing. Priority is based on risk assessment and the possibility of further massive or chronic cumulative problems.

Emergencies, especially oil spills, gas leaks, fires and cyclones are recognised as future problems with emergency procedures and training programs to suit.

In Australia, company developed and established best practices are collated by industry groups into voluntary codes of practice. Government instrumentalities codify these into minimal standards for acceptable operation. Legislative change enforces these minimum standards.

The current process is: a developer prepares an EIS or equivalent and presents this to the relevant Government. The Government accepts the EIS and ratifies development commitments, adding government minimum standards as required. For the Developer environment is considered an essential part of project critical path, analysis, and scheduling.

The approved EIS is encapsulated in an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) which includes on site induction of workforce and visitors. Developers and government monitor and audit operations for compliance and problems. Successful operations become best modern practice standard which allows to some degree an objective based; self-regulating system rather than prescriptive regulations. It also permits proactive development of new ideas rather than reactive approved responses. examples of practices in a leading developed

INTRODUCTION

country.

In the author's opinion there are very few In view of the shrinking global village the new environmental technologies but a vast increasing dynamics between current decision number of old ones modified and adapted to makers such as Governments and Petro

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