Five papers were presented, as follows, .in each case consistent with the Preprints available.

  1. Factors Influencing Selection of Octane Improvement Steps in Europe. G. H. LONG et al., Exxon Engineering Companies (UK and USA)

  2. Consequences of Lead Phase-Down in Europe. A. L. MARHOLD et al., ÖMV AG (Austria)

  3. Oxygenated Compounds in Gasoline: Octane Blending Value and Vehicle Requirements Response. F. MONTI et al., Agip Petroli/Euron

  4. The Challenge to Modern Stoichiometric Engines by the Potential Lean Burn Engine: Consumption, Emissions, Fuel Requirements. A. M. DOUAUD et al., Institut Français du Pétrole (France)

  5. Future Engines-A Challenge for Lubricants.

A. A. REGLITZKY and W. S. AFFLECK, Shell Research Laboratories (FR Germany/UK) The major messages from these papers included the following:

  • There are considerable differences in octane number requirement between US and European car populations, MON being the more important specification in Europe.

  • The best octane improvement steps depend on refinery configuration and crude oil availability; the choice of processing option is dependent on local as well as generalized octane improving considerations. Factors other than cost per octane barrel are relevant to local decision.

  • Use of US knock criteria in Europe could cause problems because of engine types with high (Italy) engine severities and the higher speeds in European motoring.

  • Octane upgrading without lead has in Europe an unfortunate effect on volatility; such effects are sensitive to climate and do not make it any easier to write a gasoline specification suitable for all of Europe.

  • Oxygenated compounds can be helpful in formulating (without lead) gasolines when hydrocarbon availability and processing options are inadequate or uneconomic. Ethers such as MTBE and alcohols are important in this respect.

  • Oxygenated compounds have blending octane numbers which depend quite dramatically on the composition of the base gasoline; repeat determinations are essential if blending octane numbers are to be satisfactory.

  • The lean burn engine, with or without an oxidation catalyst (depending on the strictness of the emission control regime), is capable of challenging the three-way catalyst equipped, stoichiometrically operated car as a method of meeting emissions constraints while giving good power availability and fuel economy. In Europe, the advantages which emissions legislation affords to small-engined vehicles means that it is in such vehicles that the lean burn engine is likely to find favour.

  • There is a considerable challenge to lubricants afforded by future automotive engines, designed to meet

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