Abstract.

To cope with the ever-increasing need to produce more transportation fuels from the bottom of the barrel, hydroprocessing has become important as a conversion and upgrading technology.

Hydroprocessing for upgrading heavy oils and residues, which contain large amounts of asphaltenes and metals, relies on the conversion of asphaltenes to lighter oils and the removal of metal compounds which have detrimental effects on hydroprocessing catalysts.

Asphaltenic Bottom Cracking catalyst was developed for this purpose. This paper discusses:

  1. characteristics of heavy residues and asphaltenes,

  2. performance of the catalyst,

  3. asphaltene conversion reactions,

  4. applications of the catalyst, and

  5. economics for a complete conversion refinery based on pilot plant tests and engineering studies.

Résumé.

Etant donné la nécessité croissante de produire des quantités plus importantes de carburants et combustibles pour le transport à partir des fonds du baril, I'hydrotraitement est devenu d'une grande importance en tant que technologie de conversion et de valorisation.

L'hydrotraitement utilisé pour la valorisation des pétroles et résidus lourds, qui contiennent de grandes quantites d'asphaltènes et de métaux, est basé sur la conversion des asphaltènes en pétroles plus légers et sur l'élimination des composés métalliques qui ont des effets nuisibles sur les catalyseurs utilisés dans I'hydrotraitement.

Le catalyseur pour le craquage asphalténique des fonds du baril a été conçu dans ce but. Cette communication présente:

  1. les caractéristiques des résidus lourds et des asphaltènes,

  2. le rendement du catalyseur,

  3. les mécanismes de réaction de la conversion asphalténique,

  4. les applications du catalyseur, et

  5. les données économiques pour une raffineries complète de conversion basées sur des essais en unité pilote et sur des études techniques.

1. INTRODUCTION

As is well known, petroleum resources are not unlimited, and there is much activity to develop substitute sources of energy. Petroleum, however, will remain as the primary source of energy for many years. Although its use is being curtailed by conservation, it will be difficult to make transportation fuels from resources other than petroleum. Progress has been made in development of alternative energy from coal, shale and tar sands. Products from these resources will replace some petroleum products, but mainly they will replace residuum. At the same time, crude oils are projected to be heavier with higher yields of residual oil. As a result, there will be an increasing oversupply of residual oil and a continuing shortage of ligher products, particularly transportation fuels. Thus, a process for economic con

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