Abstract

The requirements of Otto, diesel, rotary piston and gas engines as well as of automotive turbines are reviewed with reference to standardised test methods used to define lubricant performance in Europe, Japan and the USA.

Conflicting requirements due to differences of design, consumer habits and legislation are discussed.

Developments in the field of base oil selection, including synthetic materials, and in additive technology are considered; advances in the theory of friction and wear and the rôle of physics and chemistry in engine lubrication are reviewed. Trends towards shear-stable wide-bracket multigrade oils, low ash levels and increased oil drain periods are discussed.

Résumé

Lés exigences des moteurs à essence, Diesel, à piston rotatif et à gaz ainsi que celles des turbines automobiles sont examinées en se référant aux méthodes d'essai normalisées utilisées en Europe, au Japon et aux USA, pour définir des performances des lubrifiants.

Les divergences dues aux différences de conception, d'habitudes des consommateurs ou de législation, sont discutées.

Les développements dans le domaine de la sélection des huiles de base (y compris les matériaux synthétiques) et la technologie des additifs sont examinés.

Les progrès dans la connaissance du frottement et de l'usure et le rôle de la chimie et de la physique dans la lubrification des moteurs sont passés en revue. Les tendances vers les huiles multigrades "wide-bracket" résistant au cisaillement, les basses teneurs en cendres et l'accroissement du délai entre les vidanges sont en particulier traités.

1. INTRODUCTION

wards the end of the period a second, and almost certainly a more far-reaching, constraint became The past four years have seen the automotive engine suddenly applied-that of the energy crisis. Its implications for the lubrication of engines have not yet been fully realised. The latter part of the period saw restrictions in the availability of raw materials, coupled with sharply rising costs, which forced the lubricant supplier to explore composition variables hitherto considered uneconomical. The present review makes an attempt to bring together some of the activities, both in the research field and in the practical application of lubricants, in response to these constraints. It is by no means exhaustive and must Sunbury-on-Thames, Middlesex, England), inevitably reflect the particular experience and specialised reading of the authors. developing under the primary influence of one major constraint-that of anti-pollution requirements. To

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