of energy.

Use as (1) raw ma PROBLEMS IN THE UTILIZATION OF FOSSIL FUELS erials (2) sources of heat (3) sources


de chaleur, (3) source d'énergie.

Utilisation comme (1) matières premières, (2) sou Problems for (2) contained in (3). Only degraded reaction products or remainders from (1) or (3) ought to be burned. Adequate kinetic guidance of reactions.

Exothermal steps in (i) should be directed toward simultaneous energy gain. For (3) low-temperature oxidation in fuel cells will continue in importance.

Development of catalytically efficient electrodes. In processes involving air, formation and either utilization or destruction of nitric oxide provides kinetic problems. Removal or prevention of formation of soot, of carcinogenic substances.

Hydromagnetic generators pose kinetic problems of fast combustion, high temperature, high ionization. re Problèmes pour (2) contenus en (3) Seulement des produits dégradés ou des résidus de (2) ou (3) devraient être brûlés. Direction adéquate de la cinétique.

Utilisation des pas exothermes pour gain d'énergie.

Pour (3) l'oxidation á température basse dans des piles électriques. Développement d'électrodes d'activité catalytique. Problèmes dûs à la formation et i'utilisation ou la déstruction de l'oxyde de l'azote. Formation du noir de carbone et des substances carcinogéniques.

Génerateurs magnetohydrodynamiques, problèmes cinétiques de combustion vite, des températures élévées, d'ionisation.

Kinetic problems in the utilization of fossil fuels are possibly fuel cells) combustion involves a chain especially interesting where there is a possibility or a reaction, normally a branching chain reaction. This hope of influencing a process in a favorable sense. involves usually chain initiating reactions, chain The classical example, probably, is the suppression propagating steps, chain branching and finally chain of knock in Otto engines by "anti-knocks". Here the breaking reactions. practical application preceded theoretical work and kinetic experiments: the problem, however, was extremely stimulating for a wide field. Even if one supposes that the Otto engine will disappear from many fields in the not too distant future, the problem engines are being used, especially in motor cars, the to a replacement of lead by other additives. Further- H~ i- Oz + 20H chaininitiation more, the branching chain processes, initiating the -+ H~O -i- chain propagation knocking reaction, are similar, or partly identical with 3- Oz -+ OH + O chain branching those leading to normal ignition. Consequently, the 4* o Hz + H + OH chain branching general results may be useful for efficient ignition on the 5- + Oz + Hoz + chain breaking under one hand, for instance in case of diesel engines, and for special conditions burning chambers of gas turbine, of rockets, etc., on 6. f OH f -+ Hzo -t- chain breaking the other hand.

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