Abstract.

An account is given of the field work carried out on the stabilization by means of petroleum products of sand dunes for sufficient time to enable the growth of vegetation to be established permanently. The stabilization of both maritime and continental dunes has been studied.

The problems involved in laboratory and field work are discussed and proposals given for the quality requirements of the petroleum products used. The equipment required to apply the stabilizing film will also be described.

Résumé.

La communication présente les essais poursuivis sur le terrain concernant la stabilisation, au moyen de produits pétroliers, de dunes de sable pendant un temps suffisant pour permettre la croissance d'une végé- tation destinée à s'y fixer de façon permanente.

La stabilisation de dunes tant maritimes que continentales a été étudiée.

Les problèmes rencontrés au cours des travaux de laboratoire et sur le terrain sont présentés et des propositions sur les qualités nécessaires aux produits pétroliers utilisés sont faites.

Une description de l'équipement requis pour appliquer le film stabilisant est également donnée.

I. INTRODUCTION

Moving sand-dunes are found in many parts of the world, particularly in arid. or semi-arid areas. These dunes, whether of the coastal variety, or true continental dunes, are a constant menace to communities living in their vicinity. Under the action of the wind, the dunes migrate and engulf good agricultural land, highways, buildings, and sometimes even villages, and sand blown from the dunes causes sand-storms which can damage crops grown at some distance from the dune area.

This paper describes a method of reclaiming winderoded land by the stabilization of dunes, using petroleum products in such a manner that vegetative cover can be established on them. While petroleumbased matericals can be used either for long-term * Richard, Geoffrey Percy, Great Britain, Chemist, B. Sc. London University, Employed by Essa Research limited as a Research Chemist. ** Les, Tadeusz Leon, Great Britain, Chemist, Studied Chemistry at the Oxford School of Science and Technology, employed by ESSO Research Ltd./Research Chemist. stabilization without vegetation or for the destruction of dunes, the bulk of the work to be described was devote, d to the treatment required for successful afforestation of dunes where a temporary stabilization treatment, effective for 18-24 months is sufficient to allow the establishment of lasting and effective vegetative cover.

II. CHARACTERISTICS OF SAND-DUNES

Sand-dunes may be divided into two main classes, depending on their origin. Close to the sea, where the shore is sandy, large maritime dunes may be formed as the result of the inland transport of sand by strong on-shore winds. Such dunes can rise in places to h

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