Abstract.

There is a wide difference between Europe and the USA, not only as regards passenger and commercial vehicles themselves, but also as regards the conditions under which they are operated, consequently base oil / additive combinations which are successful in America are not always ideal in Europe, similarly American Test Procedures and Specifications have, in many cases, become too complicated for European requirements.

Résume. II existe entre l'Europe et les Etats Unis une très grande différence non seulement entre les voitures particulières et les véhicules commerciaux utilisés dans ces deux régions, mais également entre les conditions de marche auxquelles ces véhicules sont soumis.

II en résulte que les combinaisons d'huiles de base et d'additifs qui donnent toute satisfaction aux Etats Unis ne sont pas toujours idéales en Europe et, de même, les spécifications et méthodes opératoires des essais américains s'avèrent, en bien des cas, trop compliquées en regard des besoins européens.

A. INTRODUCTION

In postwar years the equipment and petroleum industries in America and Europe were quick to take advantage of the progress which had been made by the military, with the result that the tests and specifications developed during the war were rpplied in various ways to lubricants for civilian use. In America, leadership in this field has been largely by the Ordnance Department and the major equipment manufacturers with the cooperation of the petroleum industry, and the result has been a series of full scale performance tests defining minimum quality standards for motor oils and gear lubricants.

It is natural that European authorities should question whether, by following in the path of American developments, they are acting in the best interests of European manufacturers, oil companies, and users. Military groups recognise, of course, the need for service interchangeability of Iiibricating oils within the NATO organisation. * Towle, Alfred / Great Britain / Engineer / M. Sc. Engineering. M. I.

Mech. E. / Managing Director, Lubrizol International Laboratories.

However, in the civilian field, the question is being asked as to whether the types of lubricants which satisfy the requirements of American Ordnance specifications are necessarily the best ones to satisfy the European market.

In America today, we find well-established specifications which broadly classify automotive crankcase lubricating oils into different quality levelstheir performance first of all being based on military requirements and latterly, through the socalled MS series of sequences, on the requirements of the three major motor manufacturers. All such specifications commonly define a limited number of minimum properties required of an oil; however, oil companies, generally incorpora

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