This paper describes the type of research and development work condueted to provide petroleum refiners with new antiknock compounds. It also describes the application work designed to help the refining industry use antiknock compounds, both old and new, in the most economical fashion.
The program which led to the development of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MD-CMT) as a potentially commercial antiknock is used to illustrate research and development on new antiknocks while refinery-application work is illustrated by studies on the economical us3 of both TEL and MD-CMT.
Among the characteristics desired in a commercial antiknock are good fuel solubility, low water solubility, reasonable freezing point, adequate volatility, stability in fluids and gasolines, and toxicity low enough for safe handling. MD-CMT fulfills these requirements and is about twice as effective as TEL as a primary antiknock. Moreover, it is remarkably effective as a supplement to maximum Concentrations of TEL, particularly in certain types of fuels. The mechanism of antiknock action of MD-CMT is believed to be similar to that of TEL. When low concentrations of MD-CMT are used as a supplement *o TEL, exhaust-valve life is shortened, but this can be avoided by adding one of several phosphorus compounds as a corrective agent. Spark-plug life may be either increased or decreased by use of MD-CMT, depending on engineoperating conditions. Other engine problems are not materially affected by the presence of MD-CMT. Efficient use of TEL in refineries requires reliable correlations of lead response, techniques for determining the cost of incremental octane numbers, linear programming, blending rules, and a Cost balance with processing. Current knowledge in these areas is discussed. Data show that TEL is a very effective anitknock on the road as well as a useful tool for controlling octane number at the refinery.
Because of its cost, MD-CMT probably will not find its first use as a primary antiknock. As a supplement to TEL, however, it will affect current blending practices and will compete with increases in catalytic-reforming severity as a means of upgrading antiknock quality. The probable economic balance between TEL, MD-CMT and octane-improvement processes is dessrtbed, and typical examples are presented.
RFSUME. Cette étude décrit le genre de recherches et de mises au point poursuivies pour fournir de nouveaux composés antidétonants aux raffineurs de pétrole. Elle décrit aussi le travail d'application deiainé à aider l'industrie du raffinage à utiliser le plus économiquement possible les composés antidétonants anciens et nouveaux. Le programe qui a permis le développement du tricarbonyle de manganèse de méthylcycìopentadiényle (MD-CMT) en tant qu'antidétonant potentiellement comme